[v5] xfs: initial fiemap range query test
diff mbox

Message ID 1511277416-3191-2-git-send-email-nborisov@suse.com
State New
Headers show

Commit Message

Nikolay Borisov Nov. 21, 2017, 3:16 p.m. UTC
Fiemap gained support for passing in optional offset len
which denote the range requested, so this patch adds
testcases for this functionality. Aditionally, a special "ranged"
argument is added to the require_xfs_io_command which checks
for the presence of fiemap range support.

Signed-off-by: Nikolay Borisov <nborisov@suse.com>
---
V5: 
 * Drop changes to existing generic punch hole tests since 
 the new fiemap implementation don't require them 
 * Merge the common/rc change with this patch
 * Added Data + Hole + Data and Hole + Data tests as per Eryu's request
 * Adjusted output of some tests which fall in a hole, since holes are
 truncated to passed range
 * Simplified the logic to check for fiemap range support (Eryu)

V4: 
 * Added test description
 * Added new test for past-eof behavior
 * Removed supported_generic_fs line
 * Switched to using the "ranged" param require
 * Revert v3 changes

V3:
 * Adjusted tests for '-r' fiemap param
 * Tests for invalid -r combination

V2: No change
V1: No change
 common/rc         |   7 +++
 tests/xfs/900     | 101 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 tests/xfs/900.out | 125 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 233 insertions(+)
 create mode 100755 tests/xfs/900
 create mode 100644 tests/xfs/900.out

Comments

Eryu Guan Nov. 22, 2017, 6:47 a.m. UTC | #1
On Tue, Nov 21, 2017 at 05:16:56PM +0200, Nikolay Borisov wrote:
> Fiemap gained support for passing in optional offset len
> which denote the range requested, so this patch adds
> testcases for this functionality. Aditionally, a special "ranged"
> argument is added to the require_xfs_io_command which checks
> for the presence of fiemap range support.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Nikolay Borisov <nborisov@suse.com>
> ---
> V5: 
>  * Drop changes to existing generic punch hole tests since 
>  the new fiemap implementation don't require them 
>  * Merge the common/rc change with this patch
>  * Added Data + Hole + Data and Hole + Data tests as per Eryu's request
>  * Adjusted output of some tests which fall in a hole, since holes are
>  truncated to passed range
>  * Simplified the logic to check for fiemap range support (Eryu)

Thanks for the 5th version, looks good overall, though I have more
comments, sorry for not bringing them up in previous reviews...

> 
> V4: 
>  * Added test description
>  * Added new test for past-eof behavior
>  * Removed supported_generic_fs line
>  * Switched to using the "ranged" param require
>  * Revert v3 changes
> 
> V3:
>  * Adjusted tests for '-r' fiemap param
>  * Tests for invalid -r combination
> 
> V2: No change
> V1: No change
>  common/rc         |   7 +++
>  tests/xfs/900     | 101 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  tests/xfs/900.out | 125 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  3 files changed, 233 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100755 tests/xfs/900
>  create mode 100644 tests/xfs/900.out
> 
> diff --git a/common/rc b/common/rc
> index e2a8229..d0dd32d 100644
> --- a/common/rc
> +++ b/common/rc
> @@ -2053,6 +2053,13 @@ _require_xfs_io_command()
>  			-c "$command 4k 8k" $testfile 2>&1`
>  		;;
>  	"fiemap")
> +		# If 'ranged' is passed as argument then we check to see if fiemap supports
> +		# ranged query params
> +		if echo "$param" | grep -q "ranged"; then
> +			param=$(echo "$param" | sed "s/ranged//")
> +			$XFS_IO_PROG -c "help fiemap" | grep -q "\[offset \[len\]\]"
> +			[ $? -eq 0 ] || _notrun "xfs_io $command ranged support is missing"
> +		fi
>  		testio=`$XFS_IO_PROG -F -f -c "pwrite 0 20k" -c "fsync" \
>  			-c "fiemap -v $param" $testfile 2>&1`
>  		param_checked=1
> diff --git a/tests/xfs/900 b/tests/xfs/900
> new file mode 100755
> index 0000000..07f4f40
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/tests/xfs/900
> @@ -0,0 +1,101 @@
> +#! /bin/bash
> +# FS QA Test No. 900
> +
> +# Test for the new ranged query functionality in xfs_io's fiemap command.
> +# This tests various combinations of hole + data layout being printed.
> +# Also the test used 16k holes to be compatible with 16k block filesystems
> +
> +#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
> +# Copyright (c) 2017 SUSE Linux Products GmbH. All Rights Reserved.
> +# Author: Nikolay Borisov <nborisov@suse.com>
> +#
> +# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
> +# modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
> +# published by the Free Software Foundation.
> +#
> +# This program is distributed in the hope that it would be useful,
> +# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> +# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
> +# GNU General Public License for more details.
> +#
> +# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
> +# along with this program; if not, write the Free Software Foundation,
> +# Inc.,  51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
> +#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
> +#
> +
> +seq=`basename $0`
> +seqres=$RESULT_DIR/$seq
> +echo "QA output created by $seq"
> +
> +here=`pwd`
> +tmp=/tmp/$$
> +status=1	# failure is the default!
> +trap "_cleanup; exit \$status" 0 1 2 3 15
> +
> +_cleanup()
> +{
> +	cd /
> +	rm -f $tmp.*
> +}
> +
> +# get standard environment, filters and checks
> +. ./common/rc
> +. ./common/punch
> +
> +# remove previous $seqres.full before test
> +rm -f $seqres.full
> +
> +# real QA test starts here
> +
> +# Modify as appropriate.
> +_supported_os Linux
> +_require_scratch

This test is in xfs dir and that means it's an xfs-specific test, better
to have "_supported_fs xfs" for consistency.

But I'm wondering why not make it a generic test? There seems nothing
xfs-specific. And I hacked the test and tested with ext4/btrfs, tests
all passed.

Interesting thing is, test failed on XFS as:

 Hole + Data
 0: [0..31]: hole
-1: [32..63]: unwritten
+1: [32..33]: unwritten
 Hole + Data + Hole
 0: [64..95]: hole
 1: [96..127]: unwritten
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 Data + Hole + Data
 0: [32..63]: unwritten
 1: [64..95]: hole
-2: [96..127]: unwritten
+2: [96..97]: unwritten

The data extents were truncated. I was using Eric's v6 patch and v4.14+
kernel, which contains the xfs updates for 4.15-rc1.

> +_require_xfs_io_command "falloc"

fpunch is used as well, maybe need "_require_xfs_io_command fpunch".

But I'd like to avoid falloc and fpunch, so test runs on filesystems
that don't support falloc/fpunch but support fiemap, e.g. ext3, to get
better test coverage.

> +# ranged is a special argument which checks if fiemap supports
> +# [offset [len]] args
> +_require_xfs_io_command "fiemap" "ranged"
> +
> +_scratch_mkfs > $seqres.full 2>&1
> +_scratch_mount || _fail "mount failure"
> +
> +file=$SCRATCH_MNT/testfile
> +$XFS_IO_PROG -f -c "falloc 0 1m" $file
> +for i in {0..31}; do $XFS_IO_PROG -c "fpunch $(($i*32))k 16k" $file; done

So I'd like to create $file with the following command:

# Create a file with 16k hole followed by 16k data, and this pattern
# repeats till it reaches 1M file size, so each extent has 16k data.
# But truncate file to its final size first, otherwise XFS would merge
# some extents due to speculative preallocation.
$XFS_IO_PROG -fc "truncate 1m" $file
for i in {0..31}; do
	$XFS_IO_PROG -c "pwrite $(($i*32+16))k 16k" $file >/dev/null
done

Then update .out file, replace all "unwritten" with "data".


And test is missing an entry in group file.

Thanks,
Eryu
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Nikolay Borisov Nov. 23, 2017, 8:10 a.m. UTC | #2
On 22.11.2017 08:47, Eryu Guan wrote:
> On Tue, Nov 21, 2017 at 05:16:56PM +0200, Nikolay Borisov wrote:
>> Fiemap gained support for passing in optional offset len
>> which denote the range requested, so this patch adds
>> testcases for this functionality. Aditionally, a special "ranged"
>> argument is added to the require_xfs_io_command which checks
>> for the presence of fiemap range support.
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Nikolay Borisov <nborisov@suse.com>
>> ---
>> V5: 
>>  * Drop changes to existing generic punch hole tests since 
>>  the new fiemap implementation don't require them 
>>  * Merge the common/rc change with this patch
>>  * Added Data + Hole + Data and Hole + Data tests as per Eryu's request
>>  * Adjusted output of some tests which fall in a hole, since holes are
>>  truncated to passed range
>>  * Simplified the logic to check for fiemap range support (Eryu)
> 
> Thanks for the 5th version, looks good overall, though I have more
> comments, sorry for not bringing them up in previous reviews...
> 
>>
>> V4: 
>>  * Added test description
>>  * Added new test for past-eof behavior
>>  * Removed supported_generic_fs line
>>  * Switched to using the "ranged" param require
>>  * Revert v3 changes
>>
>> V3:
>>  * Adjusted tests for '-r' fiemap param
>>  * Tests for invalid -r combination
>>
>> V2: No change
>> V1: No change
>>  common/rc         |   7 +++
>>  tests/xfs/900     | 101 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>  tests/xfs/900.out | 125 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>  3 files changed, 233 insertions(+)
>>  create mode 100755 tests/xfs/900
>>  create mode 100644 tests/xfs/900.out
>>
>> diff --git a/common/rc b/common/rc
>> index e2a8229..d0dd32d 100644
>> --- a/common/rc
>> +++ b/common/rc
>> @@ -2053,6 +2053,13 @@ _require_xfs_io_command()
>>  			-c "$command 4k 8k" $testfile 2>&1`
>>  		;;
>>  	"fiemap")
>> +		# If 'ranged' is passed as argument then we check to see if fiemap supports
>> +		# ranged query params
>> +		if echo "$param" | grep -q "ranged"; then
>> +			param=$(echo "$param" | sed "s/ranged//")
>> +			$XFS_IO_PROG -c "help fiemap" | grep -q "\[offset \[len\]\]"
>> +			[ $? -eq 0 ] || _notrun "xfs_io $command ranged support is missing"
>> +		fi
>>  		testio=`$XFS_IO_PROG -F -f -c "pwrite 0 20k" -c "fsync" \
>>  			-c "fiemap -v $param" $testfile 2>&1`
>>  		param_checked=1
>> diff --git a/tests/xfs/900 b/tests/xfs/900
>> new file mode 100755
>> index 0000000..07f4f40
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/tests/xfs/900
>> @@ -0,0 +1,101 @@
>> +#! /bin/bash
>> +# FS QA Test No. 900
>> +
>> +# Test for the new ranged query functionality in xfs_io's fiemap command.
>> +# This tests various combinations of hole + data layout being printed.
>> +# Also the test used 16k holes to be compatible with 16k block filesystems
>> +
>> +#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
>> +# Copyright (c) 2017 SUSE Linux Products GmbH. All Rights Reserved.
>> +# Author: Nikolay Borisov <nborisov@suse.com>
>> +#
>> +# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
>> +# modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
>> +# published by the Free Software Foundation.
>> +#
>> +# This program is distributed in the hope that it would be useful,
>> +# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
>> +# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
>> +# GNU General Public License for more details.
>> +#
>> +# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
>> +# along with this program; if not, write the Free Software Foundation,
>> +# Inc.,  51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
>> +#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
>> +#
>> +
>> +seq=`basename $0`
>> +seqres=$RESULT_DIR/$seq
>> +echo "QA output created by $seq"
>> +
>> +here=`pwd`
>> +tmp=/tmp/$$
>> +status=1	# failure is the default!
>> +trap "_cleanup; exit \$status" 0 1 2 3 15
>> +
>> +_cleanup()
>> +{
>> +	cd /
>> +	rm -f $tmp.*
>> +}
>> +
>> +# get standard environment, filters and checks
>> +. ./common/rc
>> +. ./common/punch
>> +
>> +# remove previous $seqres.full before test
>> +rm -f $seqres.full
>> +
>> +# real QA test starts here
>> +
>> +# Modify as appropriate.
>> +_supported_os Linux
>> +_require_scratch
> 
> This test is in xfs dir and that means it's an xfs-specific test, better
> to have "_supported_fs xfs" for consistency.
> 
> But I'm wondering why not make it a generic test? There seems nothing
> xfs-specific. And I hacked the test and tested with ext4/btrfs, tests
> all passed.
> 
> Interesting thing is, test failed on XFS as:
> 
>  Hole + Data
>  0: [0..31]: hole
> -1: [32..63]: unwritten
> +1: [32..33]: unwritten
>  Hole + Data + Hole
>  0: [64..95]: hole
>  1: [96..127]: unwritten
> @@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
>  Data + Hole + Data
>  0: [32..63]: unwritten
>  1: [64..95]: hole
> -2: [96..127]: unwritten
> +2: [96..97]: unwritten

This is due to xfs always trimming extents. I've sent a patch:
 xfs: Don't trim extents for fiemap

That harmonizes xfs' behavior in that regard to the other major
filesystems by not trimming extents when called on behalf of iomap. For
once it wasn't a problem in xfs_io's fiemap code :D

> 
> The data extents were truncated. I was using Eric's v6 patch and v4.14+
> kernel, which contains the xfs updates for 4.15-rc1.
> 
>> +_require_xfs_io_command "falloc"
> 
> fpunch is used as well, maybe need "_require_xfs_io_command fpunch".
> 
> But I'd like to avoid falloc and fpunch, so test runs on filesystems
> that don't support falloc/fpunch but support fiemap, e.g. ext3, to get
> better test coverage.
> 
>> +# ranged is a special argument which checks if fiemap supports
>> +# [offset [len]] args
>> +_require_xfs_io_command "fiemap" "ranged"
>> +
>> +_scratch_mkfs > $seqres.full 2>&1
>> +_scratch_mount || _fail "mount failure"
>> +
>> +file=$SCRATCH_MNT/testfile
>> +$XFS_IO_PROG -f -c "falloc 0 1m" $file
>> +for i in {0..31}; do $XFS_IO_PROG -c "fpunch $(($i*32))k 16k" $file; done
> 
> So I'd like to create $file with the following command:
> 
> # Create a file with 16k hole followed by 16k data, and this pattern
> # repeats till it reaches 1M file size, so each extent has 16k data.
> # But truncate file to its final size first, otherwise XFS would merge
> # some extents due to speculative preallocation.
> $XFS_IO_PROG -fc "truncate 1m" $file
> for i in {0..31}; do
> 	$XFS_IO_PROG -c "pwrite $(($i*32+16))k 16k" $file >/dev/null
> done
> 
> Then update .out file, replace all "unwritten" with "data".
> 
> 
> And test is missing an entry in group file.
> 
> Thanks,
> Eryu
> 
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Patch
diff mbox

diff --git a/common/rc b/common/rc
index e2a8229..d0dd32d 100644
--- a/common/rc
+++ b/common/rc
@@ -2053,6 +2053,13 @@  _require_xfs_io_command()
 			-c "$command 4k 8k" $testfile 2>&1`
 		;;
 	"fiemap")
+		# If 'ranged' is passed as argument then we check to see if fiemap supports
+		# ranged query params
+		if echo "$param" | grep -q "ranged"; then
+			param=$(echo "$param" | sed "s/ranged//")
+			$XFS_IO_PROG -c "help fiemap" | grep -q "\[offset \[len\]\]"
+			[ $? -eq 0 ] || _notrun "xfs_io $command ranged support is missing"
+		fi
 		testio=`$XFS_IO_PROG -F -f -c "pwrite 0 20k" -c "fsync" \
 			-c "fiemap -v $param" $testfile 2>&1`
 		param_checked=1
diff --git a/tests/xfs/900 b/tests/xfs/900
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..07f4f40
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tests/xfs/900
@@ -0,0 +1,101 @@ 
+#! /bin/bash
+# FS QA Test No. 900
+
+# Test for the new ranged query functionality in xfs_io's fiemap command.
+# This tests various combinations of hole + data layout being printed.
+# Also the test used 16k holes to be compatible with 16k block filesystems
+
+#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+# Copyright (c) 2017 SUSE Linux Products GmbH. All Rights Reserved.
+# Author: Nikolay Borisov <nborisov@suse.com>
+#
+# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+# modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
+# published by the Free Software Foundation.
+#
+# This program is distributed in the hope that it would be useful,
+# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+# GNU General Public License for more details.
+#
+# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+# along with this program; if not, write the Free Software Foundation,
+# Inc.,  51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
+#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+#
+
+seq=`basename $0`
+seqres=$RESULT_DIR/$seq
+echo "QA output created by $seq"
+
+here=`pwd`
+tmp=/tmp/$$
+status=1	# failure is the default!
+trap "_cleanup; exit \$status" 0 1 2 3 15
+
+_cleanup()
+{
+	cd /
+	rm -f $tmp.*
+}
+
+# get standard environment, filters and checks
+. ./common/rc
+. ./common/punch
+
+# remove previous $seqres.full before test
+rm -f $seqres.full
+
+# real QA test starts here
+
+# Modify as appropriate.
+_supported_os Linux
+_require_scratch
+_require_xfs_io_command "falloc"
+# ranged is a special argument which checks if fiemap supports
+# [offset [len]] args
+_require_xfs_io_command "fiemap" "ranged"
+
+_scratch_mkfs > $seqres.full 2>&1
+_scratch_mount || _fail "mount failure"
+
+file=$SCRATCH_MNT/testfile
+$XFS_IO_PROG -f -c "falloc 0 1m" $file
+for i in {0..31}; do $XFS_IO_PROG -c "fpunch $(($i*32))k 16k" $file; done
+
+# Query 1 data extent between 16k..16k range
+echo "Basic data extent"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 16k 16k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+# Query data and hole extent
+echo "Data + Hole"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 16k 20k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+echo "Hole + Data"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 0 17k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+echo "Hole + Data + Hole"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 32k 40k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+echo "Data + Hole + Data"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 16k 33k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+echo "Beginning with a hole"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 0 3k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+# Query for 0..160k that's 40 extents, more than the EXTENT_BATCH
+echo "Query more than 32 extents"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 0 640k" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+echo "Larger query than file size"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 0 2m" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+# mapping past eof shouldn't print anything"
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 2m" $file | _filter_fiemap
+
+# check everything without the first hole
+$XFS_IO_PROG -c "fiemap -v 16k" $file | wc -l
+
+# success, all done
+status=0
+exit
diff --git a/tests/xfs/900.out b/tests/xfs/900.out
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2579ed1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tests/xfs/900.out
@@ -0,0 +1,125 @@ 
+QA output created by 900
+Basic data extent
+0: [32..63]: unwritten
+Data + Hole
+0: [32..63]: unwritten
+1: [64..71]: hole
+Hole + Data
+0: [0..31]: hole
+1: [32..63]: unwritten
+Hole + Data + Hole
+0: [64..95]: hole
+1: [96..127]: unwritten
+2: [128..143]: hole
+Data + Hole + Data
+0: [32..63]: unwritten
+1: [64..95]: hole
+2: [96..127]: unwritten
+Beginning with a hole
+Query more than 32 extents
+0: [0..31]: hole
+1: [32..63]: unwritten
+2: [64..95]: hole
+3: [96..127]: unwritten
+4: [128..159]: hole
+5: [160..191]: unwritten
+6: [192..223]: hole
+7: [224..255]: unwritten
+8: [256..287]: hole
+9: [288..319]: unwritten
+10: [320..351]: hole
+11: [352..383]: unwritten
+12: [384..415]: hole
+13: [416..447]: unwritten
+14: [448..479]: hole
+15: [480..511]: unwritten
+16: [512..543]: hole
+17: [544..575]: unwritten
+18: [576..607]: hole
+19: [608..639]: unwritten
+20: [640..671]: hole
+21: [672..703]: unwritten
+22: [704..735]: hole
+23: [736..767]: unwritten
+24: [768..799]: hole
+25: [800..831]: unwritten
+26: [832..863]: hole
+27: [864..895]: unwritten
+28: [896..927]: hole
+29: [928..959]: unwritten
+30: [960..991]: hole
+31: [992..1023]: unwritten
+32: [1024..1055]: hole
+33: [1056..1087]: unwritten
+34: [1088..1119]: hole
+35: [1120..1151]: unwritten
+36: [1152..1183]: hole
+37: [1184..1215]: unwritten
+38: [1216..1247]: hole
+39: [1248..1279]: unwritten
+Larger query than file size
+0: [0..31]: hole
+1: [32..63]: unwritten
+2: [64..95]: hole
+3: [96..127]: unwritten
+4: [128..159]: hole
+5: [160..191]: unwritten
+6: [192..223]: hole
+7: [224..255]: unwritten
+8: [256..287]: hole
+9: [288..319]: unwritten
+10: [320..351]: hole
+11: [352..383]: unwritten
+12: [384..415]: hole
+13: [416..447]: unwritten
+14: [448..479]: hole
+15: [480..511]: unwritten
+16: [512..543]: hole
+17: [544..575]: unwritten
+18: [576..607]: hole
+19: [608..639]: unwritten
+20: [640..671]: hole
+21: [672..703]: unwritten
+22: [704..735]: hole
+23: [736..767]: unwritten
+24: [768..799]: hole
+25: [800..831]: unwritten
+26: [832..863]: hole
+27: [864..895]: unwritten
+28: [896..927]: hole
+29: [928..959]: unwritten
+30: [960..991]: hole
+31: [992..1023]: unwritten
+32: [1024..1055]: hole
+33: [1056..1087]: unwritten
+34: [1088..1119]: hole
+35: [1120..1151]: unwritten
+36: [1152..1183]: hole
+37: [1184..1215]: unwritten
+38: [1216..1247]: hole
+39: [1248..1279]: unwritten
+40: [1280..1311]: hole
+41: [1312..1343]: unwritten
+42: [1344..1375]: hole
+43: [1376..1407]: unwritten
+44: [1408..1439]: hole
+45: [1440..1471]: unwritten
+46: [1472..1503]: hole
+47: [1504..1535]: unwritten
+48: [1536..1567]: hole
+49: [1568..1599]: unwritten
+50: [1600..1631]: hole
+51: [1632..1663]: unwritten
+52: [1664..1695]: hole
+53: [1696..1727]: unwritten
+54: [1728..1759]: hole
+55: [1760..1791]: unwritten
+56: [1792..1823]: hole
+57: [1824..1855]: unwritten
+58: [1856..1887]: hole
+59: [1888..1919]: unwritten
+60: [1920..1951]: hole
+61: [1952..1983]: unwritten
+62: [1984..2015]: hole
+63: [2016..2047]: unwritten
+65