Patchwork [RFC,v6,1/6] x86/entry: Add STACKLEAK erasing the kernel stack at the end of syscalls

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Submitter Alexander Popov
Date Dec. 5, 2017, 11:33 p.m.
Message ID <1512516827-29797-2-git-send-email-alex.popov@linux.com>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/10094139/
State New
Headers show

Comments

Alexander Popov - Dec. 5, 2017, 11:33 p.m.
The STACKLEAK feature erases the kernel stack before returning from
syscalls. That reduces the information which kernel stack leak bugs can
reveal and blocks some uninitialized stack variable attacks. Moreover,
STACKLEAK provides runtime checks for kernel stack overflow detection.

This commit introduces the architecture-specific code filling the used
part of the kernel stack with a poison value before returning to the
userspace. Full STACKLEAK feature also contains the gcc plugin which
comes in a separate commit.

The STACKLEAK feature is ported from grsecurity/PaX. More information at:
  https://grsecurity.net/
  https://pax.grsecurity.net/

This code is modified from Brad Spengler/PaX Team's code in the last
public patch of grsecurity/PaX based on our understanding of the code.
Changes or omissions from the original code are ours and don't reflect
the original grsecurity/PaX code.

Signed-off-by: Alexander Popov <alex.popov@linux.com>
---
 arch/Kconfig                     | 27 ++++++++++++
 arch/x86/Kconfig                 |  1 +
 arch/x86/entry/entry_32.S        | 65 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S        | 89 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S |  8 ++++
 arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h |  4 ++
 arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c    | 11 +++++
 arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c     |  5 +++
 arch/x86/kernel/process_64.c     |  5 +++
 include/linux/compiler.h         |  5 +++
 10 files changed, 220 insertions(+)
Peter Zijlstra - Dec. 8, 2017, 11:44 a.m.
On Wed, Dec 06, 2017 at 02:33:42AM +0300, Alexander Popov wrote:
> The STACKLEAK feature erases the kernel stack before returning from
> syscalls. That reduces the information which kernel stack leak bugs can
> reveal and blocks some uninitialized stack variable attacks. Moreover,
> STACKLEAK provides runtime checks for kernel stack overflow detection.
> 
> This commit introduces the architecture-specific code filling the used
> part of the kernel stack with a poison value before returning to the
> userspace. Full STACKLEAK feature also contains the gcc plugin which
> comes in a separate commit.

Have you looked at the entry rework in this series:

  https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171204140706.296109558@linutronix.de
Alexander Popov - Dec. 8, 2017, 9:54 p.m.
Hello Peter,

On 08.12.2017 14:44, Peter Zijlstra wrote:
> On Wed, Dec 06, 2017 at 02:33:42AM +0300, Alexander Popov wrote:
>> The STACKLEAK feature erases the kernel stack before returning from
>> syscalls. That reduces the information which kernel stack leak bugs can
>> reveal and blocks some uninitialized stack variable attacks. Moreover,
>> STACKLEAK provides runtime checks for kernel stack overflow detection.
>>
>> This commit introduces the architecture-specific code filling the used
>> part of the kernel stack with a poison value before returning to the
>> userspace. Full STACKLEAK feature also contains the gcc plugin which
>> comes in a separate commit.
> 
> Have you looked at the entry rework in this series:
> 
>   https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171204140706.296109558@linutronix.de

Thanks for the link. I briefly looked through WIP.x86/pti branch. Should I
rebase STACKLEAK patch series onto it?

Although I don't fully understand some of the commits, I can suppose that
STACKLEAK stack erasing must be modified because of this trampoline stack
introduction:
https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip.git/commit/?h=WIP.x86/pti&id=813b4125a835f2eb9aa6fb08dac0bc8eeadd69a1

Am I right? Are there other changes which I should consider?

May I also ask for your feedback on this version of the STACKLEAK patch series?
Thanks!

Best regards,
Alexander
Peter Zijlstra - Dec. 11, 2017, 9:26 a.m.
On Sat, Dec 09, 2017 at 12:54:21AM +0300, Alexander Popov wrote:
> Hello Peter,
> 
> On 08.12.2017 14:44, Peter Zijlstra wrote:
> > On Wed, Dec 06, 2017 at 02:33:42AM +0300, Alexander Popov wrote:
> >> The STACKLEAK feature erases the kernel stack before returning from
> >> syscalls. That reduces the information which kernel stack leak bugs can
> >> reveal and blocks some uninitialized stack variable attacks. Moreover,
> >> STACKLEAK provides runtime checks for kernel stack overflow detection.
> >>
> >> This commit introduces the architecture-specific code filling the used
> >> part of the kernel stack with a poison value before returning to the
> >> userspace. Full STACKLEAK feature also contains the gcc plugin which
> >> comes in a separate commit.
> > 
> > Have you looked at the entry rework in this series:
> > 
> >   https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20171204140706.296109558@linutronix.de
> 
> Thanks for the link. I briefly looked through WIP.x86/pti branch. Should I
> rebase STACKLEAK patch series onto it?

Probably a good idea; the tail end of that series is still somewhat in
flux but the entry rework is fairly stable at this point.

> Although I don't fully understand some of the commits, I can suppose that
> STACKLEAK stack erasing must be modified because of this trampoline stack
> introduction:
> https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip.git/commit/?h=WIP.x86/pti&id=813b4125a835f2eb9aa6fb08dac0bc8eeadd69a1
> 
> Am I right? Are there other changes which I should consider?

You're right; the trampoline stack is what I was thinking of. You can
run the erase thing when we're on the trampoline back out.

> May I also ask for your feedback on this version of the STACKLEAK patch series?

I meant to have a look, but have not yet found the time for it, its on
the todo list.

Thanks!

Patch

diff --git a/arch/Kconfig b/arch/Kconfig
index 400b9e1..721fdae 100644
--- a/arch/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/Kconfig
@@ -387,6 +387,13 @@  config SECCOMP_FILTER
 
 	  See Documentation/prctl/seccomp_filter.txt for details.
 
+config HAVE_ARCH_STACKLEAK
+	bool
+	help
+	  An architecture should select this if it has the code which
+	  fills the used part of the kernel stack with the STACKLEAK_POISON
+	  value before returning from system calls.
+
 config HAVE_GCC_PLUGINS
 	bool
 	help
@@ -517,6 +524,26 @@  config GCC_PLUGIN_RANDSTRUCT_PERFORMANCE
 	  in structures.  This reduces the performance hit of RANDSTRUCT
 	  at the cost of weakened randomization.
 
+config GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	bool "Erase the kernel stack before returning from syscalls"
+	depends on GCC_PLUGINS
+	depends on HAVE_ARCH_STACKLEAK
+	help
+	  This option makes the kernel erase the kernel stack before it
+	  returns from a system call. That reduces the information which
+	  kernel stack leak bugs can reveal and blocks some uninitialized
+	  stack variable attacks. This option also provides runtime checks
+	  for kernel stack overflow detection.
+
+	  The tradeoff is the performance impact: on a single CPU system kernel
+	  compilation sees a 1% slowdown, other systems and workloads may vary
+	  and you are advised to test this feature on your expected workload
+	  before deploying it.
+
+	  This plugin was ported from grsecurity/PaX. More information at:
+	   * https://grsecurity.net/
+	   * https://pax.grsecurity.net/
+
 config HAVE_CC_STACKPROTECTOR
 	bool
 	help
diff --git a/arch/x86/Kconfig b/arch/x86/Kconfig
index 8eed3f9..6646fcb 100644
--- a/arch/x86/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/x86/Kconfig
@@ -116,6 +116,7 @@  config X86
 	select HAVE_ARCH_MMAP_RND_COMPAT_BITS	if MMU && COMPAT
 	select HAVE_ARCH_COMPAT_MMAP_BASES	if MMU && COMPAT
 	select HAVE_ARCH_SECCOMP_FILTER
+	select HAVE_ARCH_STACKLEAK
 	select HAVE_ARCH_TRACEHOOK
 	select HAVE_ARCH_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE
 	select HAVE_ARCH_TRANSPARENT_HUGEPAGE_PUD if X86_64
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/entry_32.S b/arch/x86/entry/entry_32.S
index 4838037..8e4f815 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/entry_32.S
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/entry_32.S
@@ -76,6 +76,66 @@ 
 #endif
 .endm
 
+.macro erase_kstack
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	call erase_kstack
+#endif
+.endm
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+/* For the detailed comments, see erase_kstack in entry_64.S */
+ENTRY(erase_kstack)
+	pushl	%edi
+	pushl	%ecx
+	pushl	%eax
+	pushl	%ebp
+
+	movl	PER_CPU_VAR(current_task), %ebp
+	mov	TASK_lowest_stack(%ebp), %edi
+	mov	$STACKLEAK_POISON, %eax
+	std
+
+1:
+	mov	%edi, %ecx
+	and	$THREAD_SIZE_asm - 1, %ecx
+	shr	$2, %ecx
+	repne	scasl
+	jecxz	2f
+
+	cmp	$32, %ecx
+	jc	2f
+
+	mov	$32, %ecx
+	repe	scasl
+	jecxz	2f
+	jne	1b
+
+2:
+	cld
+	or	$2*4, %edi
+	mov	%esp, %ecx
+	sub	%edi, %ecx
+
+	cmp	$THREAD_SIZE_asm, %ecx
+	jb	3f
+	ud2
+
+3:
+	shr	$2, %ecx
+	rep	stosl
+
+	mov	TASK_thread_sp0(%ebp), %edi
+	sub	$128, %edi
+	mov	%edi, TASK_lowest_stack(%ebp)
+
+	popl	%ebp
+	popl	%eax
+	popl	%ecx
+	popl	%edi
+	ret
+ENDPROC(erase_kstack)
+#endif
+
 /*
  * User gs save/restore
  *
@@ -286,6 +346,7 @@  ENTRY(ret_from_fork)
 	/* When we fork, we trace the syscall return in the child, too. */
 	movl    %esp, %eax
 	call    syscall_return_slowpath
+	erase_kstack
 	jmp     restore_all
 
 	/* kernel thread */
@@ -446,6 +507,8 @@  ENTRY(entry_SYSENTER_32)
 	ALTERNATIVE "testl %eax, %eax; jz .Lsyscall_32_done", \
 		    "jmp .Lsyscall_32_done", X86_FEATURE_XENPV
 
+	erase_kstack
+
 /* Opportunistic SYSEXIT */
 	TRACE_IRQS_ON			/* User mode traces as IRQs on. */
 	movl	PT_EIP(%esp), %edx	/* pt_regs->ip */
@@ -532,6 +595,8 @@  ENTRY(entry_INT80_32)
 	call	do_int80_syscall_32
 .Lsyscall_32_done:
 
+	erase_kstack
+
 restore_all:
 	TRACE_IRQS_IRET
 .Lrestore_all_notrace:
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S b/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S
index f81d50d..94f659d 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/entry_64.S
@@ -64,6 +64,90 @@  END(native_usergs_sysret64)
 	TRACE_IRQS_FLAGS EFLAGS(%rsp)
 .endm
 
+.macro erase_kstack
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	call erase_kstack
+#endif
+.endm
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+ENTRY(erase_kstack)
+	pushq	%rdi
+	pushq	%rcx
+	pushq	%rax
+	pushq	%r11
+
+	movq	PER_CPU_VAR(current_task), %r11
+	mov	TASK_lowest_stack(%r11), %rdi
+	mov	$STACKLEAK_POISON, %rax
+	std
+
+	/*
+	 * Let's search for the poison value in the stack.
+	 * Start from the lowest_stack and go to the bottom (see std above).
+	 */
+1:
+	mov	%edi, %ecx
+	and	$THREAD_SIZE_asm - 1, %ecx
+	shr	$3, %ecx
+	repne	scasq
+	jecxz	2f	/* Didn't find it. Go to poisoning. */
+
+	/*
+	 * Found the poison value in the stack. Go to poisoning if there are
+	 * less than 16 qwords left.
+	 */
+	cmp	$16, %ecx
+	jc	2f
+
+	/*
+	 * Check that 16 further qwords contain poison (avoid false positives).
+	 * If so, the part of the stack below the address in %rdi is likely
+	 * to be poisoned. Otherwise we need to search deeper.
+	 */
+	mov	$16, %ecx
+	repe	scasq
+	jecxz	2f	/* Poison the upper part of the stack. */
+	jne	1b	/* Search deeper. */
+
+2:
+	/*
+	 * Prepare the counter for poisoning the kernel stack between
+	 * %rdi and %rsp. Two qwords at the bottom of the stack are reserved
+	 * and should not be poisoned (see CONFIG_SCHED_STACK_END_CHECK).
+	 */
+	cld
+	or	$2*8, %rdi
+	mov	%esp, %ecx
+	sub	%edi, %ecx
+
+	/* Check that the counter value is sane. */
+	cmp	$THREAD_SIZE_asm, %rcx
+	jb	3f
+	ud2
+
+3:
+	/*
+	 * So let's write the poison value to the kernel stack. Start from the
+	 * address in %rdi and move up (see cld above) to the address in %rsp
+	 * (not included, used memory).
+	 */
+	shr	$3, %ecx
+	rep	stosq
+
+	/* Set the lowest_stack value to the top_of_stack - 256. */
+	movq	PER_CPU_VAR(cpu_current_top_of_stack), %rdi
+	sub	$256, %rdi
+	mov	%rdi, TASK_lowest_stack(%r11)
+
+	popq	%r11
+	popq	%rax
+	popq	%rcx
+	popq	%rdi
+	ret
+ENDPROC(erase_kstack)
+#endif
+
 /*
  * When dynamic function tracer is enabled it will add a breakpoint
  * to all locations that it is about to modify, sync CPUs, update
@@ -221,6 +305,8 @@  entry_SYSCALL_64_fastpath:
 	testl	$_TIF_ALLWORK_MASK, TASK_TI_flags(%r11)
 	jnz	1f
 
+	erase_kstack
+
 	LOCKDEP_SYS_EXIT
 	TRACE_IRQS_ON		/* user mode is traced as IRQs on */
 	movq	RIP(%rsp), %rcx
@@ -249,6 +335,8 @@  entry_SYSCALL64_slow_path:
 	call	do_syscall_64		/* returns with IRQs disabled */
 
 return_from_SYSCALL_64:
+	erase_kstack
+
 	TRACE_IRQS_IRETQ		/* we're about to change IF */
 
 	/*
@@ -432,6 +520,7 @@  ENTRY(ret_from_fork)
 	UNWIND_HINT_REGS
 	movq	%rsp, %rdi
 	call	syscall_return_slowpath	/* returns with IRQs disabled */
+	erase_kstack
 	TRACE_IRQS_ON			/* user mode is traced as IRQS on */
 	jmp	swapgs_restore_regs_and_return_to_usermode
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S b/arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S
index 568e130..8f3b13b 100644
--- a/arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S
+++ b/arch/x86/entry/entry_64_compat.S
@@ -19,6 +19,12 @@ 
 
 	.section .entry.text, "ax"
 
+	.macro erase_kstack
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	call erase_kstack
+#endif
+	.endm
+
 /*
  * 32-bit SYSENTER entry.
  *
@@ -229,6 +235,7 @@  GLOBAL(entry_SYSCALL_compat_after_hwframe)
 
 	/* Opportunistic SYSRET */
 sysret32_from_system_call:
+	erase_kstack
 	TRACE_IRQS_ON			/* User mode traces as IRQs on. */
 	movq	RBX(%rsp), %rbx		/* pt_regs->rbx */
 	movq	RBP(%rsp), %rbp		/* pt_regs->rbp */
@@ -336,6 +343,7 @@  ENTRY(entry_INT80_compat)
 .Lsyscall_32_done:
 
 	/* Go back to user mode. */
+	erase_kstack
 	TRACE_IRQS_ON
 	jmp	swapgs_restore_regs_and_return_to_usermode
 END(entry_INT80_compat)
diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
index cc16fa8..520508d 100644
--- a/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
+++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h
@@ -481,6 +481,10 @@  struct thread_struct {
 
 	mm_segment_t		addr_limit;
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	unsigned long		lowest_stack;
+#endif
+
 	unsigned int		sig_on_uaccess_err:1;
 	unsigned int		uaccess_err:1;	/* uaccess failed */
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c b/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c
index 8ea7827..692c10e 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/asm-offsets.c
@@ -38,6 +38,12 @@  void common(void) {
 	BLANK();
 	OFFSET(TASK_TI_flags, task_struct, thread_info.flags);
 	OFFSET(TASK_addr_limit, task_struct, thread.addr_limit);
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	OFFSET(TASK_lowest_stack, task_struct, thread.lowest_stack);
+# ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
+	OFFSET(TASK_thread_sp0, task_struct, thread.sp0);
+# endif
+#endif
 
 	BLANK();
 	OFFSET(crypto_tfm_ctx_offset, crypto_tfm, __crt_ctx);
@@ -74,6 +80,11 @@  void common(void) {
 	OFFSET(PV_MMU_read_cr2, pv_mmu_ops, read_cr2);
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	BLANK();
+	DEFINE(THREAD_SIZE_asm, THREAD_SIZE);
+#endif
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_XEN
 	BLANK();
 	OFFSET(XEN_vcpu_info_mask, vcpu_info, evtchn_upcall_mask);
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c b/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c
index 45bf0c5..2bea3bf 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/process_32.c
@@ -136,6 +136,11 @@  int copy_thread_tls(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long sp,
 	p->thread.sp0 = (unsigned long) (childregs+1);
 	memset(p->thread.ptrace_bps, 0, sizeof(p->thread.ptrace_bps));
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	p->thread.lowest_stack = (unsigned long)task_stack_page(p) +
+						2 * sizeof(unsigned long);
+#endif
+
 	if (unlikely(p->flags & PF_KTHREAD)) {
 		/* kernel thread */
 		memset(childregs, 0, sizeof(struct pt_regs));
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/process_64.c b/arch/x86/kernel/process_64.c
index eeeb34f..1641463 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/process_64.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/process_64.c
@@ -282,6 +282,11 @@  int copy_thread_tls(unsigned long clone_flags, unsigned long sp,
 	p->thread.sp = (unsigned long) fork_frame;
 	p->thread.io_bitmap_ptr = NULL;
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+	p->thread.lowest_stack = (unsigned long)task_stack_page(p) +
+						2 * sizeof(unsigned long);
+#endif
+
 	savesegment(gs, p->thread.gsindex);
 	p->thread.gsbase = p->thread.gsindex ? 0 : me->thread.gsbase;
 	savesegment(fs, p->thread.fsindex);
diff --git a/include/linux/compiler.h b/include/linux/compiler.h
index 188ed9f..4e543d0 100644
--- a/include/linux/compiler.h
+++ b/include/linux/compiler.h
@@ -352,4 +352,9 @@  static __always_inline void __write_once_size(volatile void *p, void *res, int s
 	(volatile typeof(x) *)&(x); })
 #define ACCESS_ONCE(x) (*__ACCESS_ONCE(x))
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STACKLEAK
+/* It points to the unused hole in the virtual memory map  */
+# define STACKLEAK_POISON -0xBEEF
+#endif
+
 #endif /* __LINUX_COMPILER_H */