[11/22] docs: add XFS allocation group metadata to the DS&A book
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Message ID 153862677363.26427.1303537666781308735.stgit@magnolia
State Not Applicable
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  • xfs-4.20: major documentation surgery
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Commit Message

Darrick J. Wong Oct. 4, 2018, 4:19 a.m. UTC
From: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>

Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>
---
 .../xfs-data-structures/allocation_groups.rst      | 1381 ++++++++++++++++++++
 .../filesystems/xfs-data-structures/globals.rst    |    1 
 2 files changed, 1382 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/allocation_groups.rst

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diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/allocation_groups.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/allocation_groups.rst
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+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: CC-BY-SA-4.0
+
+Allocation Groups
+-----------------
+
+As mentioned earlier, XFS filesystems are divided into a number of equally
+sized chunks called Allocation Groups. Each AG can almost be thought of as an
+individual filesystem that maintains its own space usage. Each AG can be up to
+one terabyte in size (512 bytes × 2\ :sup:`31`), regardless of the underlying
+device’s sector size.
+
+Each AG has the following characteristics:
+
+-  A super block describing overall filesystem info
+
+-  Free space management
+
+-  Inode allocation and tracking
+
+-  Reverse block-mapping index (optional)
+
+-  Data block reference count index (optional)
+
+Having multiple AGs allows XFS to handle most operations in parallel without
+degrading performance as the number of concurrent accesses increases.
+
+The only global information maintained by the first AG (primary) is free space
+across the filesystem and total inode counts. If the
+XFS\_SB\_VERSION2\_LAZYSBCOUNTBIT flag is set in the superblock, these are
+only updated on-disk when the filesystem is cleanly unmounted (umount or
+shutdown).
+
+Immediately after a mkfs.xfs, the primary AG has the following disk layout;
+the subsequent AGs do not have any inodes allocated:
+
+.. figure:: images/6.png
+   :alt: Allocation group layout
+
+   Allocation group layout
+
+Each of these structures are expanded upon in the following sections.
+
+Superblocks
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each AG starts with a superblock. The first one, in AG 0, is the primary
+superblock which stores aggregate AG information. Secondary superblocks are
+only used by xfs\_repair when the primary superblock has been corrupted. A
+superblock is one sector in length.
+
+The superblock is defined by the following structure. The description of each
+field follows.
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_sb
+    {
+        __uint32_t      sb_magicnum;
+        __uint32_t      sb_blocksize;
+        xfs_rfsblock_t  sb_dblocks;
+        xfs_rfsblock_t  sb_rblocks;
+        xfs_rtblock_t   sb_rextents;
+        uuid_t          sb_uuid;
+        xfs_fsblock_t   sb_logstart;
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_rootino;
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_rbmino;
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_rsumino;
+        xfs_agblock_t   sb_rextsize;
+        xfs_agblock_t   sb_agblocks;
+        xfs_agnumber_t  sb_agcount;
+        xfs_extlen_t    sb_rbmblocks;
+        xfs_extlen_t    sb_logblocks;
+        __uint16_t      sb_versionnum;
+        __uint16_t      sb_sectsize;
+        __uint16_t      sb_inodesize;
+        __uint16_t      sb_inopblock;
+        char            sb_fname[12];
+        __uint8_t       sb_blocklog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_sectlog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_inodelog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_inopblog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_agblklog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_rextslog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_inprogress;
+        __uint8_t       sb_imax_pct;
+        __uint64_t      sb_icount;
+        __uint64_t      sb_ifree;
+        __uint64_t      sb_fdblocks;
+        __uint64_t      sb_frextents;
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_uquotino;
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_gquotino;
+        __uint16_t      sb_qflags;
+        __uint8_t       sb_flags;
+        __uint8_t       sb_shared_vn;
+        xfs_extlen_t    sb_inoalignmt;
+        __uint32_t      sb_unit;
+        __uint32_t      sb_width;
+        __uint8_t       sb_dirblklog;
+        __uint8_t       sb_logsectlog;
+        __uint16_t      sb_logsectsize;
+        __uint32_t      sb_logsunit;
+        __uint32_t      sb_features2;
+        __uint32_t      sb_bad_features2;
+
+        /* version 5 superblock fields start here */
+        __uint32_t      sb_features_compat;
+        __uint32_t      sb_features_ro_compat;
+        __uint32_t      sb_features_incompat;
+        __uint32_t      sb_features_log_incompat;
+
+        __uint32_t      sb_crc;
+        xfs_extlen_t    sb_spino_align;
+
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_pquotino;
+        xfs_lsn_t       sb_lsn;
+        uuid_t          sb_meta_uuid;
+        xfs_ino_t       sb_rrmapino;
+    };
+
+**sb\_magicnum**
+    Identifies the filesystem. Its value is XFS\_SB\_MAGIC "XFSB"
+    (0x58465342).
+
+**sb\_blocksize**
+    The size of a basic unit of space allocation in bytes. Typically, this is
+    4096 (4KB) but can range from 512 to 65536 bytes.
+
+**sb\_dblocks**
+    Total number of blocks available for data and metadata on the filesystem.
+
+**sb\_rblocks**
+    Number blocks in the real-time disk device. Refer to `real-time
+    sub-volumes <#real-time-devices>`__ for more information.
+
+**sb\_rextents**
+    Number of extents on the real-time device.
+
+**sb\_uuid**
+    UUID (Universally Unique ID) for the filesystem. Filesystems can be
+    mounted by the UUID instead of device name.
+
+**sb\_logstart**
+    First block number for the journaling log if the log is internal (ie. not
+    on a separate disk device). For an external log device, this will be zero
+    (the log will also start on the first block on the log device). The
+    identity of the log devices is not recorded in the filesystem, but the
+    UUIDs of the filesystem and the log device are compared to prevent
+    corruption.
+
+**sb\_rootino**
+    Root inode number for the filesystem. Normally, the root inode is at the
+    start of the first possible inode chunk in AG 0. This is 128 when using a
+    4KB block size.
+
+**sb\_rbmino**
+    Bitmap inode for real-time extents.
+
+**sb\_rsumino**
+    Summary inode for real-time bitmap.
+
+**sb\_rextsize**
+    Realtime extent size in blocks.
+
+**sb\_agblocks**
+    Size of each AG in blocks. For the actual size of the last AG, refer to
+    the `free space <#ag-free-space-management>`__ agf\_length value.
+
+**sb\_agcount**
+    Number of AGs in the filesystem.
+
+**sb\_rbmblocks**
+    Number of real-time bitmap blocks.
+
+**sb\_logblocks**
+    Number of blocks for the journaling log.
+
+**sb\_versionnum**
+    Filesystem version number. This is a bitmask specifying the features
+    enabled when creating the filesystem. Any disk checking tools or drivers
+    that do not recognize any set bits must not operate upon the filesystem.
+    Most of the flags indicate features introduced over time. If the value of
+    the lower nibble is >= 4, the higher bits indicate feature flags as
+    follows:
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 28 52
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Flag
+     - Description
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_ATTRBIT
+     - Set if any inode have extended attributes.  If this bit is set; the
+       XFS_SB_VERSION2_ATTR2BIT is not set; and the ``attr2`` mount flag is not
+       specified, the ``di_forkoff`` inode field will not be dynamically
+       adjusted.  See the section about `extended attribute versions
+       <#extended-attribute-versions>`__ for more information.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_NLINKBIT
+     - Set if any inodes use 32-bit di_nlink values.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_QUOTABIT
+     - Quotas are enabled on the filesystem.  This also brings in the various
+       quota fields in the superblock.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_ALIGNBIT
+     - Set if sb_inoalignmt is used.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_DALIGNBIT
+     - Set if sb_unit and sb_width are used.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_SHAREDBIT
+     - Set if sb_shared_vn is used.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_LOGV2BIT
+     - Version 2 journaling logs are used.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_SECTORBIT
+     - Set if sb_sectsize is not 512.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_EXTFLGBIT
+     - Unwritten extents are used.  This is always set.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_DIRV2BIT
+     - Version 2 directories are used.  This is always set.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION_MOREBITSBIT
+     - Set if the sb_features2 field in the superblock contains more flags.
+
+Table: Version 4 Superblock version flags
+
+If the lower nibble of this value is 5, then this is a v5 filesystem; the
+XFS\_SB\_VERSION2\_CRCBIT feature must be set in sb\_features2.
+
+**sb\_sectsize**
+    Specifies the underlying disk sector size in bytes. Typically this is 512
+    or 4096 bytes. This determines the minimum I/O alignment, especially for
+    direct I/O.
+
+**sb\_inodesize**
+    Size of the inode in bytes. The default is 256 (2 inodes per standard
+    sector) but can be made as large as 2048 bytes when creating the
+    filesystem. On a v5 filesystem, the default and minimum inode size are
+    both 512 bytes.
+
+**sb\_inopblock**
+    Number of inodes per block. This is equivalent to sb\_blocksize /
+    sb\_inodesize.
+
+**sb\_fname[12]**
+    Name for the filesystem. This value can be used in the mount command.
+
+**sb\_blocklog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of sb\_blocksize. In other terms, sb\_blocksize =
+    2^sb\_blocklog^.
+
+**sb\_sectlog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of sb\_sectsize.
+
+**sb\_inodelog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of sb\_inodesize.
+
+**sb\_inopblog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of sb\_inopblock.
+
+**sb\_agblklog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of sb\_agblocks (rounded up). This value is used to
+    generate inode numbers and absolute block numbers defined in extent maps.
+
+**sb\_rextslog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of sb\_rextents.
+
+**sb\_inprogress**
+    Flag specifying that the filesystem is being created.
+
+**sb\_imax\_pct**
+    Maximum percentage of filesystem space that can be used for inodes. The
+    default value is 5%.
+
+**sb\_icount**
+    Global count for number inodes allocated on the filesystem. This is only
+    maintained in the first superblock.
+
+**sb\_ifree**
+    Global count of free inodes on the filesystem. This is only maintained in
+    the first superblock.
+
+**sb\_fdblocks**
+    Global count of free data blocks on the filesystem. This is only
+    maintained in the first superblock.
+
+**sb\_frextents**
+    Global count of free real-time extents on the filesystem. This is only
+    maintained in the first superblock.
+
+**sb\_uquotino**
+    Inode for user quotas. This and the following two quota fields only apply
+    if XFS\_SB\_VERSION\_QUOTABIT flag is set in sb\_versionnum. Refer to
+    `quota inodes <#quota-inodes>`__ for more information
+
+**sb\_gquotino**
+    Inode for group or project quotas. Group and Project quotas cannot be used
+    at the same time.
+
+**sb\_qflags**
+    Quota flags. It can be a combination of the following flags:
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 20 60
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Flag
+     - Description
+
+   * - XFS_UQUOTA_ACCT
+     - User quota accounting is enabled.
+
+   * - XFS_UQUOTA_ENFD
+     - User quotas are enforced.
+
+   * - XFS_UQUOTA_CHKD
+     - User quotas have been checked.
+
+   * - XFS_PQUOTA_ACCT
+     - Project quota accounting is enabled.
+
+   * - XFS_OQUOTA_ENFD
+     - Other (group/project) quotas are enforced.
+
+   * - XFS_OQUOTA_CHKD
+     - Other (group/project) quotas have been checked.
+
+   * - XFS_GQUOTA_ACCT
+     - Group quota accounting is enabled.
+
+   * - XFS_GQUOTA_ENFD
+     - Group quotas are enforced.
+
+   * - XFS_GQUOTA_CHKD
+     - Group quotas have been checked.
+
+   * - XFS_PQUOTA_ENFD
+     - Project quotas are enforced.
+
+   * - XFS_PQUOTA_CHKD
+     - Project quotas have been checked.
+
+Table: Superblock quota flags
+
+**sb\_flags**
+    Miscellaneous flags.
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 20 60
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Flag
+     - Description
+
+   * - XFS_SBF_READONLY
+     - Only read-only mounts allowed.
+
+Table: Superblock flags
+
+**sb\_shared\_vn**
+    Reserved and must be zero ("vn" stands for version number).
+
+**sb\_inoalignmt**
+    Inode chunk alignment in fsblocks. Prior to v5, the default value provided
+    for inode chunks to have an 8KiB alignment. Starting with v5, the default
+    value scales with the multiple of the inode size over 256 bytes.
+    Concretely, this means an alignment of 16KiB for 512-byte inodes, 32KiB
+    for 1024-byte inodes, etc. If sparse inodes are enabled, the ir\_startino
+    field of each inode B+tree record must be aligned to this block
+    granularity, even if the inode given by ir\_startino itself is sparse.
+
+**sb\_unit**
+    Underlying stripe or raid unit in blocks.
+
+**sb\_width**
+    Underlying stripe or raid width in blocks.
+
+**sb\_dirblklog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` multiplier that determines the granularity of directory
+    block allocations in fsblocks.
+
+**sb\_logsectlog**
+    log\ :sub:`2` value of the log subvolume’s sector size. This is only used
+    if the journaling log is on a separate disk device (i.e. not internal).
+
+**sb\_logsectsize**
+    The log’s sector size in bytes if the filesystem uses an external log
+    device.
+
+**sb\_logsunit**
+    The log device’s stripe or raid unit size. This only applies to version 2
+    logs XFS\_SB\_VERSION\_LOGV2BIT is set in sb\_versionnum.
+
+**sb\_features2**
+    Additional version flags if XFS\_SB\_VERSION\_MOREBITSBIT is set in
+    sb\_versionnum. The currently defined additional features include:
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 32 48
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Flag
+     - Description
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION2_LAZYSBCOUNTBIT
+     - Lazy global counters.  Making a filesystem with this bit set can improve
+       performance.  The global free space and inode counts are only updated in
+       the primary superblock when the filesystem is cleanly unmounted.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION2_ATTR2BIT
+     - Extended attributes version 2.  Making a filesystem with this optimises
+       the inode layout of extended attributes.  If this bit is set and the
+       +noattr2+ mount flag is not specified, the +di_forkoff+ inode field will
+       be dynamically adjusted.  See the section about `extended attribute
+       versions <#extended-attribute-versions>`__ for more information.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION2_PARENTBIT
+     - Parent pointers.  All inodes must have an extended attribute that points
+       back to its parent inode.  The primary purpose for this information is
+       in backup systems.  This feature bit refers to the IRIX parent pointer
+       implementation.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION2_PROJID32BIT
+     - 32-bit Project ID.  Inodes can be associated with a project ID number,
+       which can be used to enforce disk space usage quotas for a particular
+       group of directories.  This flag indicates that project IDs can be 32
+       bits in size.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION2_CRCBIT
+     - Metadata checksumming.  All metadata blocks have an extended header
+       containing the block checksum, a copy of the metadata UUID, the log
+       sequence number of the last update to prevent stale replays, and a back
+       pointer to the owner of the block.  This feature must be and can only be
+       set if the lowest nibble of ``sb_versionnum`` is set to 5.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_VERSION2_FTYPE
+     - Directory file type.  Each directory entry records the type of the inode
+       to which the entry points.  This speeds up directory iteration by
+       removing the need to load every inode into memory.
+
+Table: Extended Version 4 Superblock flags
+
+**sb\_bad\_features2**
+    This field mirrors sb\_features2, due to past 64-bit alignment errors.
+
+**sb\_features\_compat**
+    Read-write compatible feature flags. The kernel can still read and write
+    this FS even if it doesn’t understand the flag. Currently, there are no
+    valid flags.
+
+**sb\_features\_ro\_compat**
+    Read-only compatible feature flags. The kernel can still read this FS even
+    if it doesn’t understand the flag.
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 32 48
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Flag
+     - Description
+
+   * - XFS_SB_FEAT_RO_COMPAT_FINOBT
+     - Free inode B+tree.  Each allocation group contains a B+tree to track
+       inode chunks containing free inodes.  This is a performance optimization
+       to reduce the time required to allocate inodes.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_FEAT_RO_COMPAT_RMAPBT
+     - Reverse mapping B+tree.  Each allocation group contains a B+tree
+       containing records mapping AG blocks to their owners.  See the section
+       about `online repairs <#metadata-reconstruction>`__ for more details.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_FEAT_RO_COMPAT_REFLINK
+     - Reference count B+tree.  Each allocation group contains a B+tree to
+       track the reference counts of AG blocks.  This enables files to share
+       data blocks safely.  See the section about `reflink and deduplication
+       <#sharing-data-blocks>`__ for more details.
+
+Table: Extended Version 5 Superblock Read-Only compatibility flags
+
+**sb\_features\_incompat**
+    Read-write incompatible feature flags. The kernel cannot read or write
+    this FS if it doesn’t understand the flag.
+
+.. list-table::
+   :widths: 32 48
+   :header-rows: 1
+
+   * - Flag
+     - Description
+
+   * - XFS_SB_FEAT_INCOMPAT_FTYPE
+     - Directory file type.  Each directory entry tracks the type of the inode
+       to which the entry points.  This is a performance optimization to remove
+       the need to load every inode into memory to iterate a directory.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_FEAT_INCOMPAT_SPINODES
+     - Sparse inodes.  This feature relaxes the requirement to allocate inodes
+       in chunks of 64.  When the free space is heavily fragmented, there might
+       exist plenty of free space but not enough contiguous free space to
+       allocate a new inode chunk.  With this feature, the user can continue to
+       create files until all free space is exhausted.
+
+       Unused space in the inode B+tree records are used to track which parts
+       of the inode chunk are not inodes.
+
+       See the chapter on `sparse inodes <#sparse-inodes>`__ for more
+       information.
+
+   * - XFS_SB_FEAT_INCOMPAT_META_UUID
+     - Metadata UUID.  The UUID stamped into each metadata block must match the
+       value in ``sb_meta_uuid``.  This enables the administrator to change
+       ``sb_uuid`` at will without having to rewrite the entire filesystem.
+
+Table: Extended Version 5 Superblock Read-Write incompatibility flags
+
+**sb\_features\_log\_incompat**
+    Read-write incompatible feature flags for the log. The kernel cannot read
+    or write this FS log if it doesn’t understand the flag. Currently, no
+    flags are defined.
+
+**sb\_crc**
+    Superblock checksum.
+
+**sb\_spino\_align**
+    Sparse inode alignment, in fsblocks. Each chunk of inodes referenced by a
+    sparse inode B+tree record must be aligned to this block granularity.
+
+**sb\_pquotino**
+    Project quota inode.
+
+**sb\_lsn**
+    Log sequence number of the last superblock update.
+
+**sb\_meta\_uuid**
+    If the XFS\_SB\_FEAT\_INCOMPAT\_META\_UUID feature is set, then the UUID
+    field in all metadata blocks must match this UUID. If not, the block
+    header UUID field must match sb\_uuid.
+
+**sb\_rrmapino**
+    If the XFS\_SB\_FEAT\_RO\_COMPAT\_RMAPBT feature is set and a real-time
+    device is present (sb\_rblocks > 0), this field points to an inode that
+    contains the root to the `Real-Time Reverse Mapping B+tree
+    <#real-time-reverse-mapping-b-tree>`__. This field is zero otherwise.
+
+xfs\_db Superblock Example
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+A filesystem is made on a single disk with the following command:
+
+::
+
+    # mkfs.xfs -i attr=2 -n size=16384 -f /dev/sda7
+    meta-data=/dev/sda7              isize=256    agcount=16, agsize=3923122 blks
+             =                       sectsz=512   attr=2
+    data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=62769952, imaxpct=25
+             =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks, unwritten=1
+    naming   =version 2              bsize=16384
+    log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=30649, version=1
+             =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks
+    realtime =none                   extsz=65536  blocks=0, rtextents=0
+
+And in xfs\_db, inspecting the superblock:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> sb
+    xfs_db> p
+    magicnum = 0x58465342
+    blocksize = 4096
+    dblocks = 62769952
+    rblocks = 0
+    rextents = 0
+    uuid = 32b24036-6931-45b4-b68c-cd5e7d9a1ca5
+    logstart = 33554436
+    rootino = 128
+    rbmino = 129
+    rsumino = 130
+    rextsize = 16
+    agblocks = 3923122
+    agcount = 16
+    rbmblocks = 0
+    logblocks = 30649
+    versionnum = 0xb084
+    sectsize = 512
+    inodesize = 256
+    inopblock = 16
+    fname = "\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000\000"
+    blocklog = 12
+    sectlog = 9
+    inodelog = 8
+    inopblog = 4
+    agblklog = 22
+    rextslog = 0
+    inprogress = 0
+    imax_pct = 25
+    icount = 64
+    ifree = 61
+    fdblocks = 62739235
+    frextents = 0
+    uquotino = 0
+    gquotino = 0
+    qflags = 0
+    flags = 0
+    shared_vn = 0
+    inoalignmt = 2
+    unit = 0
+    width = 0
+    dirblklog = 2
+    logsectlog = 0
+    logsectsize = 0
+    logsunit = 0
+    features2 = 8
+
+AG Free Space Management
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The XFS filesystem tracks free space in an allocation group using two B+trees.
+One B+tree tracks space by block number, the second by the size of the free
+space block. This scheme allows XFS to find quickly free space near a given
+block or of a given size.
+
+All block numbers, indexes, and counts are AG relative.
+
+AG Free Space Block
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The second sector in an AG contains the information about the two free space
+B+trees and associated free space information for the AG. The "AG Free
+Space Block" also knows as the AGF, uses the following structure:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_agf {
+         __be32              agf_magicnum;
+         __be32              agf_versionnum;
+         __be32              agf_seqno;
+         __be32              agf_length;
+         __be32              agf_roots[XFS_BTNUM_AGF];
+         __be32              agf_levels[XFS_BTNUM_AGF];
+         __be32              agf_flfirst;
+         __be32              agf_fllast;
+         __be32              agf_flcount;
+         __be32              agf_freeblks;
+         __be32              agf_longest;
+         __be32              agf_btreeblks;
+
+         /* version 5 filesystem fields start here */
+         uuid_t              agf_uuid;
+         __be32              agf_rmap_blocks;
+         __be32              agf_refcount_blocks;
+         __be32              agf_refcount_root;
+         __be32              agf_refcount_level;
+         __be64              agf_spare64[14];
+
+         /* unlogged fields, written during buffer writeback. */
+         __be64              agf_lsn;
+         __be32              agf_crc;
+         __be32              agf_spare2;
+    };
+
+The rest of the bytes in the sector are zeroed. XFS\_BTNUM\_AGF is set to 3:
+index 0 for the free space B+tree indexed by block number; index 1 for the
+free space B+tree indexed by extent size; and index 2 for the reverse-mapping
+B+tree.
+
+**agf\_magicnum**
+    Specifies the magic number for the AGF sector: "XAGF" (0x58414746).
+
+**agf\_versionnum**
+    Set to XFS\_AGF\_VERSION which is currently 1.
+
+**agf\_seqno**
+    Specifies the AG number for the sector.
+
+**agf\_length**
+    Specifies the size of the AG in filesystem blocks. For all AGs except the
+    last, this must be equal to the superblock’s sb\_agblocks value. For the
+    last AG, this could be less than the sb\_agblocks value. It is this value
+    that should be used to determine the size of the AG.
+
+**agf\_roots**
+    Specifies the block number for the root of the two free space B+trees and
+    the reverse-mapping B+tree, if enabled.
+
+**agf\_levels**
+    Specifies the level or depth of the two free space B+trees and the
+    reverse-mapping B+tree, if enabled. For a fresh AG, this value will be
+    one, and the "roots" will point to a single leaf of level 0.
+
+**agf\_flfirst**
+    Specifies the index of the first "free list" block. Free lists are
+    covered in more detail later on.
+
+**agf\_fllast**
+    Specifies the index of the last "free list" block.
+
+**agf\_flcount**
+    Specifies the number of blocks in the "free list".
+
+**agf\_freeblks**
+    Specifies the current number of free blocks in the AG.
+
+**agf\_longest**
+    Specifies the number of blocks of longest contiguous free space in the AG.
+
+**agf\_btreeblks**
+    Specifies the number of blocks used for the free space B+trees. This is
+    only used if the XFS\_SB\_VERSION2\_LAZYSBCOUNTBIT bit is set in
+    sb\_features2.
+
+**agf\_uuid**
+    The UUID of this block, which must match either sb\_uuid or sb\_meta\_uuid
+    depending on which features are set.
+
+**agf\_rmap\_blocks**
+    The size of the reverse mapping B+tree in this allocation group, in
+    blocks.
+
+**agf\_refcount\_blocks**
+    The size of the reference count B+tree in this allocation group, in
+    blocks.
+
+**agf\_refcount\_root**
+    Block number for the root of the reference count B+tree, if enabled.
+
+**agf\_refcount\_level**
+    Depth of the reference count B+tree, if enabled.
+
+**agf\_spare64**
+    Empty space in the logged part of the AGF sector, for use for future
+    features.
+
+**agf\_lsn**
+    Log sequence number of the last AGF write.
+
+**agf\_crc**
+    Checksum of the AGF sector.
+
+**agf\_spare2**
+    Empty space in the unlogged part of the AGF sector.
+
+AG Free Space B+trees
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The two Free Space B+trees store a sorted array of block offset and block
+counts in the leaves of the B+tree. The first B+tree is sorted by the offset,
+the second by the count or size.
+
+Leaf nodes contain a sorted array of offset/count pairs which are also used
+for node keys:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_alloc_rec {
+         __be32                    ar_startblock;
+         __be32                    ar_blockcount;
+    };
+
+**ar\_startblock**
+    AG block number of the start of the free space.
+
+**ar\_blockcount**
+    Length of the free space.
+
+Node pointers are an AG relative block pointer:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    typedef __be32 xfs_alloc_ptr_t;
+
+-  As the free space tracking is AG relative, all the block numbers are only
+   32-bits.
+
+-  The bb\_magic value depends on the B+tree: "ABTB" (0x41425442) for the block
+   offset B+tree, "ABTC" (0x41425443) for the block count B+tree. On a v5
+   filesystem, these are "AB3B" (0x41423342) and "AB3C" (0x41423343),
+   respectively.
+
+-  The xfs\_btree\_sblock\_t header is used for intermediate B+tree node as
+   well as the leaves.
+
+-  For a typical 4KB filesystem block size, the offset for the
+   xfs\_alloc\_ptr\_t array would be 0xab0 (2736 decimal).
+
+-  There are a series of macros in xfs\_btree.h for deriving the offsets,
+   counts, maximums, etc for the B+trees used in XFS.
+
+The following diagram shows a single level B+tree which consists of one leaf:
+
+.. figure:: images/15a.png
+   :alt: Freespace B+tree with one leaf.
+
+   Freespace B+tree with one leaf.
+
+With the intermediate nodes, the associated leaf pointers are stored in a
+separate array about two thirds into the block. The following diagram
+illustrates a 2-level B+tree for a free space B+tree:
+
+.. figure:: images/15b.png
+   :alt: Multi-level freespace B+tree.
+
+   Multi-level freespace B+tree.
+
+AG Free List
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The AG Free List is located in the 4\ :sup:`th` sector of each AG and is known
+as the AGFL. It is an array of AG relative block pointers for reserved space
+for growing the free space B+trees. This space cannot be used for general user
+data including inodes, data, directories and extended attributes.
+
+With a freshly made filesystem, 4 blocks are reserved immediately after the
+free space B+tree root blocks (blocks 4 to 7). As they are used up as the free
+space fragments, additional blocks will be reserved from the AG and added to
+the free list array. This size may increase as features are added.
+
+As the free list array is located within a single sector, a typical device
+will have space for 128 elements in the array (512 bytes per sector, 4 bytes
+per AG relative block pointer). The actual size can be determined by using the
+XFS\_AGFL\_SIZE macro.
+
+Active elements in the array are specified by the `AGF’s
+<#ag-free-space-block>`__ agf\_flfirst, agf\_fllast and agf\_flcount values.
+The array is managed as a circular list.
+
+On a v5 filesystem, the following header precedes the free list entries:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_agfl {
+         __be32              agfl_magicnum;
+         __be32              agfl_seqno;
+         uuid_t              agfl_uuid;
+         __be64              agfl_lsn;
+         __be32              agfl_crc;
+    };
+
+**agfl\_magicnum**
+    Specifies the magic number for the AGFL sector: "XAFL" (0x5841464c).
+
+**agfl\_seqno**
+    Specifies the AG number for the sector.
+
+**agfl\_uuid**
+    The UUID of this block, which must match either sb\_uuid or sb\_meta\_uuid
+    depending on which features are set.
+
+**agfl\_lsn**
+    Log sequence number of the last AGFL write.
+
+**agfl\_crc**
+    Checksum of the AGFL sector.
+
+On a v4 filesystem there is no header; the array of free block numbers begins
+at the beginning of the sector.
+
+.. figure:: images/16.png
+   :alt: AG Free List layout
+
+   AG Free List layout
+
+The presence of these reserved blocks guarantees that the free space B+trees
+can be updated if any blocks are freed by extent changes in a full AG.
+
+xfs\_db AGF Example
+"""""""""""""""""""
+
+These examples are derived from an AG that has been deliberately fragmented.
+The AGF:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> agf 0
+    xfs_db> p
+    magicnum = 0x58414746
+    versionnum = 1
+    seqno = 0
+    length = 3923122
+    bnoroot = 7
+    cntroot = 83343
+    bnolevel = 2
+    cntlevel = 2
+    flfirst = 22
+    fllast = 27
+    flcount = 6
+    freeblks = 3654234
+    longest = 3384327
+    btreeblks = 0
+
+In the AGFL, the active elements are from 22 to 27 inclusive which are
+obtained from the flfirst and fllast values from the agf in the previous
+example:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> agfl 0
+    xfs_db> p
+    bno[0-127] = 0:4 1:5 2:6 3:7 4:83342 5:83343 6:83344 7:83345 8:83346 9:83347
+                 10:4 11:5 12:80205 13:80780 14:81496 15:81766 16:83346 17:4 18:5
+                 19:80205 20:82449 21:81496 22:81766 23:82455 24:80780 25:5
+                 26:80205 27:83344
+
+The root block of the free space B+tree sorted by block offset is found in the
+AGF’s bnoroot value:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> fsblock 7
+    xfs_db> type bnobt
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x41425442
+    level = 1
+    numrecs = 4
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = null
+    keys[1-4] = [startblock,blockcount]
+               1:[12,16] 2:[184586,3] 3:[225579,1] 4:[511629,1]
+    ptrs[1-4] = 1:2 2:83347 3:6 4:4
+
+Blocks 2, 83347, 6 and 4 contain the leaves for the free space B+tree by
+starting block. Block 2 would contain offsets 12 up to but not including
+184586 while block 4 would have all offsets from 511629 to the end of the AG.
+
+The root block of the free space B+tree sorted by block count is found in the
+AGF’s cntroot value:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> fsblock 83343
+    xfs_db> type cntbt
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x41425443
+    level = 1
+    numrecs = 4
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = null
+    keys[1-4] = [blockcount,startblock]
+               1:[1,81496] 2:[1,511729] 3:[3,191875] 4:[6,184595]
+    ptrs[1-4] = 1:3 2:83345 3:83342 4:83346
+
+The leaf in block 3, in this example, would only contain single block counts.
+The offsets are sorted in ascending order if the block count is the same.
+
+Inspecting the leaf in block 83346, we can see the largest block at the end:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> fsblock 83346
+    xfs_db> type cntbt
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x41425443
+    level = 0
+    numrecs = 344
+    leftsib = 83342
+    rightsib = null
+    recs[1-344] = [startblock,blockcount]
+               1:[184595,6] 2:[187573,6] 3:[187776,6]
+               ...
+               342:[513712,755] 343:[230317,258229] 344:[538795,3384327]
+
+The longest block count (3384327) must be the same as the AGF’s longest value.
+
+AG Inode Management
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Inode Numbers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Inode numbers in XFS come in two forms: AG relative and absolute.
+
+AG relative inode numbers always fit within 32 bits. The number of bits
+actually used is determined by the sum of the `superblock’s <#superblocks>`__
+sb\_inoplog and sb\_agblklog values. Relative inode numbers are found within
+the AG’s inode structures.
+
+Absolute inode numbers include the AG number in the high bits, above the bits
+used for the AG relative inode number. Absolute inode numbers are found in
+`directory <#directories>`__ entries and the superblock.
+
+.. figure:: images/18.png
+   :alt: Inode number formats
+
+   Inode number formats
+
+Inode Information
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Each AG manages its own inodes. The third sector in the AG contains
+information about the AG’s inodes and is known as the AGI.
+
+The AGI uses the following structure:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_agi {
+         __be32              agi_magicnum;
+         __be32              agi_versionnum;
+         __be32              agi_seqno
+         __be32              agi_length;
+         __be32              agi_count;
+         __be32              agi_root;
+         __be32              agi_level;
+         __be32              agi_freecount;
+         __be32              agi_newino;
+         __be32              agi_dirino;
+         __be32              agi_unlinked[64];
+
+         /*
+          * v5 filesystem fields start here; this marks the end of logging region 1
+          * and start of logging region 2.
+          */
+         uuid_t              agi_uuid;
+         __be32              agi_crc;
+         __be32              agi_pad32;
+         __be64              agi_lsn;
+
+         __be32              agi_free_root;
+         __be32              agi_free_level;
+    }
+
+**agi\_magicnum**
+    Specifies the magic number for the AGI sector: "XAGI" (0x58414749).
+
+**agi\_versionnum**
+    Set to XFS\_AGI\_VERSION which is currently 1.
+
+**agi\_seqno**
+    Specifies the AG number for the sector.
+
+**agi\_length**
+    Specifies the size of the AG in filesystem blocks.
+
+**agi\_count**
+    Specifies the number of inodes allocated for the AG.
+
+**agi\_root**
+    Specifies the block number in the AG containing the root of the inode
+    B+tree.
+
+**agi\_level**
+    Specifies the number of levels in the inode B+tree.
+
+**agi\_freecount**
+    Specifies the number of free inodes in the AG.
+
+**agi\_newino**
+    Specifies AG-relative inode number of the most recently allocated chunk.
+
+**agi\_dirino**
+    Deprecated and not used, this is always set to NULL (-1).
+
+**agi\_unlinked[64]**
+    Hash table of unlinked (deleted) inodes that are still being referenced.
+    Refer to `unlinked list pointers <#unlinked-pointer>`__ for more
+    information.
+
+**agi\_uuid**
+    The UUID of this block, which must match either sb\_uuid or sb\_meta\_uuid
+    depending on which features are set.
+
+**agi\_crc**
+    Checksum of the AGI sector.
+
+**agi\_pad32**
+    Padding field, otherwise unused.
+
+**agi\_lsn**
+    Log sequence number of the last write to this block.
+
+**agi\_free\_root**
+    Specifies the block number in the AG containing the root of the free inode
+    B+tree.
+
+**agi\_free\_level**
+    Specifies the number of levels in the free inode B+tree.
+
+Inode B+trees
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Inodes are traditionally allocated in chunks of 64, and a B+tree is used to
+track these chunks of inodes as they are allocated and freed. The block
+containing root of the B+tree is defined by the AGI’s agi\_root value. If the
+XFS\_SB\_FEAT\_RO\_COMPAT\_FINOBT feature is enabled, a second B+tree is used
+to track the chunks containing free inodes; this is an optimization to speed
+up inode allocation.
+
+The B+tree header for the nodes and leaves use the xfs\_btree\_sblock
+structure which is the same as the header used in the `AGF
+B+trees <#ag-free-space-b-trees>`__.
+
+The magic number of the inode B+tree is "IABT" (0x49414254).  On a v5
+filesystem, the magic number is "IAB3" (0x49414233).
+
+The magic number of the free inode B+tree is "FIBT" (0x46494254).  On a v5
+filesystem, the magic number is "FIB3" (0x46494254).
+
+Leaves contain an array of the following structure:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_inobt_rec {
+         __be32                    ir_startino;
+         __be32                    ir_freecount;
+         __be64                    ir_free;
+    };
+
+**ir\_startino**
+    The lowest-numbered inode in this chunk.
+
+**ir\_freecount**
+    Number of free inodes in this chunk.
+
+**ir\_free**
+    A 64 element bitmap showing which inodes in this chunk are free.
+
+Nodes contain key/pointer pairs using the following types:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_inobt_key {
+         __be32                     ir_startino;
+    };
+    typedef __be32 xfs_inobt_ptr_t;
+
+The following diagram illustrates a single level inode B+tree:
+
+.. figure:: images/20a.png
+   :alt: Single Level inode B+tree
+
+   Single Level inode B+tree
+
+And a 2-level inode B+tree:
+
+.. figure:: images/20b.png
+   :alt: Multi-Level inode B+tree
+
+   Multi-Level inode B+tree
+
+xfs\_db AGI Example
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+This is an AGI of a freshly populated filesystem:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> agi 0
+    xfs_db> p
+    magicnum = 0x58414749
+    versionnum = 1
+    seqno = 0
+    length = 825457
+    count = 5440
+    root = 3
+    level = 1
+    freecount = 9
+    newino = 5792
+    dirino = null
+    unlinked[0-63] =
+    uuid = 3dfa1e5c-5a5f-4ca2-829a-000e453600fe
+    lsn = 0x1000032c2
+    crc = 0x14cb7e5c (correct)
+    free_root = 4
+    free_level = 1
+
+From this example, we see that the inode B+tree is rooted at AG block 3 and
+that the free inode B+tree is rooted at AG block 4. Let’s look at the inode
+B+tree:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> addr root
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x49414233
+    level = 0
+    numrecs = 85
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = null
+    bno = 24
+    lsn = 0x1000032c2
+    uuid = 3dfa1e5c-5a5f-4ca2-829a-000e453600fe
+    owner = 0
+    crc = 0x768f9592 (correct)
+    recs[1-85] = [startino,freecount,free]
+            1:[96,0,0] 2:[160,0,0] 3:[224,0,0] 4:[288,0,0]
+            5:[352,0,0] 6:[416,0,0] 7:[480,0,0] 8:[544,0,0]
+            9:[608,0,0] 10:[672,0,0] 11:[736,0,0] 12:[800,0,0]
+            ...
+            85:[5792,9,0xff80000000000000]
+
+Most of the inode chunks on this filesystem are totally full, since the free
+value is zero. This means that we ought to expect inode 160 to be linked
+somewhere in the directory structure. However, notice that 0xff80000000000000
+in record 85 — this means that we would expect inode 5856 to be free. Moving
+on to the free inode B+tree, we see that this is indeed the case:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> addr free_root
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x46494233
+    level = 0
+    numrecs = 1
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = null
+    bno = 32
+    lsn = 0x1000032c2
+    uuid = 3dfa1e5c-5a5f-4ca2-829a-000e453600fe
+    owner = 0
+    crc = 0x338af88a (correct)
+    recs[1] = [startino,freecount,free] 1:[5792,9,0xff80000000000000]
+
+Observe also that the AGI’s agi\_newino points to this chunk, which has never
+been fully allocated.
+
+Sparse Inodes
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+As mentioned in the previous section, XFS allocates inodes in chunks of 64. If
+there are no free extents large enough to hold a full chunk of 64 inodes, the
+inode allocation fails and XFS claims to have run out of space. On a
+filesystem with highly fragmented free space, this can lead to out of space
+errors long before the filesystem runs out of free blocks.
+
+The sparse inode feature tracks inode chunks in the inode B+tree as if they
+were full chunks but uses some previously unused bits in the freecount field
+to track which parts of the inode chunk are not allocated for use as inodes.
+This allows XFS to allocate inodes one block at a time if absolutely
+necessary.
+
+The inode and free inode B+trees operate in the same manner as they do without
+the sparse inode feature; the B+tree header for the nodes and leaves use the
+xfs\_btree\_sblock structure which is the same as the header used in the `AGF
+B+trees <#ag-free-space-b-trees>`__.
+
+It is theoretically possible for a sparse inode B+tree record to reference
+multiple non-contiguous inode chunks.
+
+Leaves contain an array of the following structure:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_inobt_rec {
+         __be32                    ir_startino;
+         __be16                    ir_holemask;
+         __u8                      ir_count;
+         __u8                      ir_freecount;
+         __be64                    ir_free;
+    };
+
+**ir\_startino**
+    The lowest-numbered inode in this chunk, rounded down to the nearest
+    multiple of 64, even if the start of this chunk is sparse.
+
+**ir\_holemask**
+    A 16 element bitmap showing which parts of the chunk are not allocated to
+    inodes. Each bit represents four inodes; if a bit is marked here, the
+    corresponding bits in ir\_free must also be marked.
+
+**ir\_count**
+    Number of inodes allocated to this chunk.
+
+**ir\_freecount**
+    Number of free inodes in this chunk.
+
+**ir\_free**
+    A 64 element bitmap showing which inodes in this chunk are not available
+    for allocation.
+
+xfs\_db Sparse Inode AGI Example
+""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+This example derives from an AG that has been deliberately fragmented. The
+inode B+tree:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> agi 0
+    xfs_db> p
+    magicnum = 0x58414749
+    versionnum = 1
+    seqno = 0
+    length = 6400
+    count = 10432
+    root = 2381
+    level = 2
+    freecount = 0
+    newino = 14912
+    dirino = null
+    unlinked[0-63] =
+    uuid = b9b4623b-f678-4d48-8ce7-ce08950e3cd6
+    lsn = 0x600000ac4
+    crc = 0xef550dbc (correct)
+    free_root = 4
+    free_level = 1
+
+This AGI was formatted on a v5 filesystem; notice the extra v5 fields. So far
+everything else looks much the same as always.
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> addr root
+    magic = 0x49414233
+    level = 1
+    numrecs = 2
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = null
+    bno = 19048
+    lsn = 0x50000192b
+    uuid = b9b4623b-f678-4d48-8ce7-ce08950e3cd6
+    owner = 0
+    crc = 0xd98cd2ca (correct)
+    keys[1-2] = [startino] 1:[128] 2:[35136]
+    ptrs[1-2] = 1:3 2:2380
+    xfs_db> addr ptrs[1]
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x49414233
+    level = 0
+    numrecs = 159
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = 2380
+    bno = 24
+    lsn = 0x600000ac4
+    uuid = b9b4623b-f678-4d48-8ce7-ce08950e3cd6
+    owner = 0
+    crc = 0x836768a6 (correct)
+    recs[1-159] = [startino,holemask,count,freecount,free]
+            1:[128,0,64,0,0]
+            2:[14912,0xff,32,0,0xffffffff]
+            3:[15040,0,64,0,0]
+            4:[15168,0xff00,32,0,0xffffffff00000000]
+            5:[15296,0,64,0,0]
+            6:[15424,0xff,32,0,0xffffffff]
+            7:[15552,0,64,0,0]
+            8:[15680,0xff00,32,0,0xffffffff00000000]
+            9:[15808,0,64,0,0]
+            10:[15936,0xff,32,0,0xffffffff]
+
+Here we see the difference in the inode B+tree records. For example, in record
+2, we see that the holemask has a value of 0xff. This means that the first
+sixteen inodes in this chunk record do not actually map to inode blocks; the
+first inode in this chunk is actually inode 14944:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> inode 14912
+    Metadata corruption detected at block 0x3a40/0x2000
+    ...
+    Metadata CRC error detected for ino 14912
+    xfs_db> p core.magic
+    core.magic = 0
+    xfs_db> inode 14944
+    xfs_db> p core.magic
+    core.magic = 0x494e
+
+The chunk record also indicates that this chunk has 32 inodes, and that the
+missing inodes are also "free".
+
+Real-time Devices
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The performance of the standard XFS allocator varies depending on the internal
+state of the various metadata indices enabled on the filesystem. For
+applications which need to minimize the jitter of allocation latency, XFS
+supports the notion of a "real-time device". This is a special device
+separate from the regular filesystem where extent allocations are tracked with
+a bitmap and free space is indexed with a two-dimensional array. If an inode
+is flagged with XFS\_DIFLAG\_REALTIME, its data will live on the real time
+device. The metadata for real time devices is discussed in the section about
+`real time inodes <#real-time-inodes>`__.
+
+By placing the real time device (and the journal) on separate high-performance
+storage devices, it is possible to reduce most of the unpredictability in I/O
+response times that come from metadata operations.
+
+None of the XFS per-AG B+trees are involved with real time files. It is not
+possible for real time files to share data blocks.
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/globals.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/globals.rst
index 546968699a56..c91b1d24d6e7 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/globals.rst
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/globals.rst
@@ -5,3 +5,4 @@  Global Structures
 
 .. include:: btrees.rst
 .. include:: dabtrees.rst
+.. include:: allocation_groups.rst