[16/22] docs: add preliminary XFS realtime rmapbt structures to the DS&A book
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Message ID 153862680580.26427.13325972708752045108.stgit@magnolia
State Not Applicable
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Series
  • xfs-4.20: major documentation surgery
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Commit Message

Darrick J. Wong Oct. 4, 2018, 4:20 a.m. UTC
From: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>

Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <darrick.wong@oracle.com>
---
 .../xfs-data-structures/internal_inodes.rst        |    2 
 .../filesystems/xfs-data-structures/rtrmapbt.rst   |  230 ++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 232 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/rtrmapbt.rst

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/internal_inodes.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/internal_inodes.rst
index 4c3a1bf1f822..0faf58caf8f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/internal_inodes.rst
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/internal_inodes.rst
@@ -206,3 +206,5 @@  rtbitmap location, and positive if there are any.
 This data structure is not particularly space efficient, however it is a very
 fast way to provide the same data as the two free space B+trees for regular
 files since the space is preallocated and metadata maintenance is minimal.
+
+.. include:: rtrmapbt.rst
diff --git a/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/rtrmapbt.rst b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/rtrmapbt.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1573ec4f09ec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/filesystems/xfs-data-structures/rtrmapbt.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,230 @@ 
+Real-Time Reverse-Mapping B+tree
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+    **Note**
+
+    This data structure is under construction! Details may change.
+
+If the reverse-mapping B+tree and real-time storage device features are
+enabled, the real-time device has its own reverse block-mapping B+tree.
+
+As mentioned in the chapter about `reconstruction <#metadata-reconstruction>`__, this
+data structure is another piece of the puzzle necessary to reconstruct the
+data or attribute fork of a file from reverse-mapping records; we can also use
+it to double-check allocations to ensure that we are not accidentally
+cross-linking blocks, which can cause severe damage to the filesystem.
+
+This B+tree is only present if the XFS\_SB\_FEAT\_RO\_COMPAT\_RMAPBT feature
+is enabled and a real time device is present. The feature requires a version 5
+filesystem.
+
+The real-time reverse mapping B+tree is rooted in an inode’s data fork; the
+inode number is given by the sb\_rrmapino field in the superblock. The B+tree
+blocks themselves are stored in the regular filesystem. The structures used
+for an inode’s B+tree root are:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_rtrmap_root {
+         __be16                     bb_level;
+         __be16                     bb_numrecs;
+    };
+
+-  On disk, the B+tree node starts with the xfs\_rtrmap\_root header followed
+   by an array of xfs\_rtrmap\_key values and then an array of
+   xfs\_rtrmap\_ptr\_t values. The size of both arrays is specified by the
+   header’s bb\_numrecs value.
+
+-  The root node in the inode can only contain up to 10 key/pointer pairs for
+   a standard 512 byte inode before a new level of nodes is added between the
+   root and the leaves. di\_forkoff should always be zero, because there are
+   no extended attributes.
+
+Each record in the real-time reverse-mapping B+tree has the following
+structure:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_rtrmap_rec {
+         __be64                     rm_startblock;
+         __be64                     rm_blockcount;
+         __be64                     rm_owner;
+         __be64                     rm_fork:1;
+         __be64                     rm_bmbt:1;
+         __be64                     rm_unwritten:1;
+         __be64                     rm_unused:7;
+         __be64                     rm_offset:54;
+    };
+
+**rm\_startblock**
+    Real-time device block number of this record.
+
+**rm\_blockcount**
+    The length of this extent, in real-time blocks.
+
+**rm\_owner**
+    A 64-bit number describing the owner of this extent. This must be an inode
+    number, because the real-time device is for file data only.
+
+**rm\_fork**
+    If rm\_owner describes an inode, this can be 1 if this record is for an
+    attribute fork. This value will always be zero for real-time extents.
+
+**rm\_bmbt**
+    If rm\_owner describes an inode, this can be 1 to signify that this record
+    is for a block map B+tree block. In this case, rm\_offset has no meaning.
+    This value will always be zero for real-time extents.
+
+**rm\_unwritten**
+    A flag indicating that the extent is unwritten. This corresponds to the
+    flag in the `extent record <#data-extents>`__ format which means
+    XFS\_EXT\_UNWRITTEN.
+
+**rm\_offset**
+    The 54-bit logical file block offset, if rm\_owner describes an inode.
+
+    **Note**
+
+    The single-bit flag values rm\_unwritten, rm\_fork, and rm\_bmbt are
+    packed into the larger fields in the C structure definition.
+
+The key has the following structure:
+
+.. code:: c
+
+    struct xfs_rtrmap_key {
+         __be64                     rm_startblock;
+         __be64                     rm_owner;
+         __be64                     rm_fork:1;
+         __be64                     rm_bmbt:1;
+         __be64                     rm_reserved:1;
+         __be64                     rm_unused:7;
+         __be64                     rm_offset:54;
+    };
+
+-  All block numbers are 64-bit real-time device block numbers.
+
+-  The bb\_magic value is "MAPR" (0x4d415052).
+
+-  The xfs\_btree\_lblock\_t header is used for intermediate B+tree node as
+   well as the leaves.
+
+-  Each pointer is associated with two keys. The first of these is the "low
+   key", which is the key of the smallest record accessible through the
+   pointer. This low key has the same meaning as the key in all other btrees.
+   The second key is the high key, which is the maximum of the largest key
+   that can be used to access a given record underneath the pointer. Recall
+   that each record in the real-time reverse mapping b+tree describes an
+   interval of physical blocks mapped to an interval of logical file block
+   offsets; therefore, it makes sense that a range of keys can be used to find
+   to a record.
+
+xfs\_db rtrmapbt Example
+""""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+This example shows a real-time reverse-mapping B+tree from a freshly populated
+root filesystem:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> sb 0
+    xfs_db> addr rrmapino
+    xfs_db> p
+    core.magic = 0x494e
+    core.mode = 0100000
+    core.version = 3
+    core.format = 5 (rtrmapbt)
+    ...
+    u3.rtrmapbt.level = 3
+    u3.rtrmapbt.numrecs = 1
+    u3.rtrmapbt.keys[1] = [startblock,owner,offset,attrfork,bmbtblock,startblock_hi,
+                   owner_hi,offset_hi,attrfork_hi,bmbtblock_hi]
+        1:[1,132,1,0,0,1705337,133,54431,0,0]
+    u3.rtrmapbt.ptrs[1] = 1:671
+    xfs_db> addr u3.rtrmapbt.ptrs[1]
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x4d415052
+    level = 2
+    numrecs = 8
+    leftsib = null
+    rightsib = null
+    bno = 5368
+    lsn = 0x400000000
+    uuid = 98bbde42-67e7-46a5-a73e-d64a76b1b5ce
+    owner = 131
+    crc = 0x2560d199 (correct)
+    keys[1-8] = [startblock,owner,offset,attrfork,bmbtblock,startblock_hi,owner_hi,
+             offset_hi,attrfork_hi,bmbtblock_hi]
+        1:[1,132,1,0,0,17749,132,17749,0,0]
+        2:[17751,132,17751,0,0,35499,132,35499,0,0]
+        3:[35501,132,35501,0,0,53249,132,53249,0,0]
+        4:[53251,132,53251,0,0,1658473,133,7567,0,0]
+        5:[1658475,133,7569,0,0,1667473,133,16567,0,0]
+        6:[1667475,133,16569,0,0,1685223,133,34317,0,0]
+        7:[1685225,133,34319,0,0,1694223,133,43317,0,0]
+        8:[1694225,133,43319,0,0,1705337,133,54431,0,0]
+    ptrs[1-8] = 1:134 2:238 3:345 4:453 5:795 6:563 7:670 8:780
+
+We arbitrarily pick pointer 7 (twice) to traverse downwards:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> addr ptrs[7]
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x4d415052
+    level = 1
+    numrecs = 36
+    leftsib = 563
+    rightsib = 780
+    bno = 5360
+    lsn = 0
+    uuid = 98bbde42-67e7-46a5-a73e-d64a76b1b5ce
+    owner = 131
+    crc = 0x6807761d (correct)
+    keys[1-36] = [startblock,owner,offset,attrfork,bmbtblock,startblock_hi,owner_hi,
+              offset_hi,attrfork_hi,bmbtblock_hi]
+        1:[1685225,133,34319,0,0,1685473,133,34567,0,0]
+        2:[1685475,133,34569,0,0,1685723,133,34817,0,0]
+        3:[1685725,133,34819,0,0,1685973,133,35067,0,0]
+        ...
+        34:[1693475,133,42569,0,0,1693723,133,42817,0,0]
+        35:[1693725,133,42819,0,0,1693973,133,43067,0,0]
+        36:[1693975,133,43069,0,0,1694223,133,43317,0,0]
+    ptrs[1-36] = 1:669 2:672 3:674...34:722 35:723 36:725
+    xfs_db> addr ptrs[7]
+    xfs_db> p
+    magic = 0x4d415052
+    level = 0
+    numrecs = 125
+    leftsib = 678
+    rightsib = 681
+    bno = 5440
+    lsn = 0
+    uuid = 98bbde42-67e7-46a5-a73e-d64a76b1b5ce
+    owner = 131
+    crc = 0xefce34d4 (correct)
+    recs[1-125] = [startblock,blockcount,owner,offset,extentflag,attrfork,bmbtblock]
+        1:[1686725,1,133,35819,0,0,0]
+        2:[1686727,1,133,35821,0,0,0]
+        3:[1686729,1,133,35823,0,0,0]
+        ...
+        123:[1686969,1,133,36063,0,0,0]
+        124:[1686971,1,133,36065,0,0,0]
+        125:[1686973,1,133,36067,0,0,0]
+
+Several interesting things pop out here. The first record shows that inode 133
+has mapped real-time block 1,686,725 at offset 35,819. We confirm this by
+looking at the block map for that inode:
+
+::
+
+    xfs_db> inode 133
+    xfs_db> p core.realtime
+    core.realtime = 1
+    xfs_db> bmap
+    data offset 35817 startblock 1686723 (1/638147) count 1 flag 0
+    data offset 35819 startblock 1686725 (1/638149) count 1 flag 0
+    data offset 35821 startblock 1686727 (1/638151) count 1 flag 0
+
+Notice that inode 133 has the real-time flag set, which means that its data
+blocks are all allocated from the real-time device.