[v2,1/2] kretprobe: produce sane stack traces
diff mbox series

Message ID 20181031152543.12138-2-cyphar@cyphar.com
State New
Headers show
Series
  • kretprobe: produce sane stack traces
Related show

Commit Message

Aleksa Sarai Oct. 31, 2018, 3:25 p.m. UTC
Historically, kretprobe has always produced unusable stack traces
(kretprobe_trampoline is the only entry in most cases, because of the
funky stack pointer overwriting). This has caused quite a few annoyances
when using tracing to debug problems[1] -- since return values are only
available with kretprobes but stack traces were only usable for kprobes,
users had to probe both and then manually associate them.

With the advent of bpf_trace, users would have been able to do this
association in bpf, but this was less than ideal (because
bpf_get_stackid would still produce rubbish and programs that didn't
know better would get silly results). The main usecase for stack traces
(at least with bpf_trace) is for DTrace-style aggregation on stack
traces (both entry and exit). Therefore we cannot simply correct the
stack trace on exit -- we must stash away the stack trace and return the
entry stack trace when it is requested.

[1]: https://github.com/iovisor/bpftrace/issues/101

Cc: Brendan Gregg <bgregg@netflix.com>
Cc: Christian Brauner <christian@brauner.io>
Signed-off-by: Aleksa Sarai <cyphar@cyphar.com>
---
 Documentation/kprobes.txt                     |   6 +-
 include/linux/kprobes.h                       |  15 +++
 kernel/events/callchain.c                     |   8 +-
 kernel/kprobes.c                              | 101 +++++++++++++++++-
 kernel/trace/trace.c                          |  11 +-
 .../test.d/kprobe/kretprobe_stacktrace.tc     |  25 +++++
 6 files changed, 161 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/ftrace/test.d/kprobe/kretprobe_stacktrace.tc

Comments

kernel test robot Oct. 31, 2018, 8:18 p.m. UTC | #1
Hi Aleksa,

Thank you for the patch! Yet something to improve:

[auto build test ERROR on tip/perf/core]
[also build test ERROR on v4.19 next-20181031]
[if your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, please drop us a note to help improve the system]

url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Aleksa-Sarai/kretprobe-produce-sane-stack-traces/20181101-034104
config: i386-tinyconfig (attached as .config)
compiler: gcc-7 (Debian 7.3.0-1) 7.3.0
reproduce:
        # save the attached .config to linux build tree
        make ARCH=i386 

All error/warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):

   kernel/events/callchain.c: In function 'get_perf_callchain':
>> kernel/events/callchain.c:201:35: error: implicit declaration of function 'current_kretprobe_instance'; did you mean 'current_top_of_stack'? [-Werror=implicit-function-declaration]
      struct kretprobe_instance *ri = current_kretprobe_instance();
                                      ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                      current_top_of_stack
>> kernel/events/callchain.c:201:35: warning: initialization makes pointer from integer without a cast [-Wint-conversion]
>> kernel/events/callchain.c:206:4: error: implicit declaration of function 'kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel'; did you mean 'perf_callchain_kernel'? [-Werror=implicit-function-declaration]
       kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel(ri, &ctx);
       ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
       perf_callchain_kernel
   cc1: some warnings being treated as errors

vim +201 kernel/events/callchain.c

   178	
   179	struct perf_callchain_entry *
   180	get_perf_callchain(struct pt_regs *regs, u32 init_nr, bool kernel, bool user,
   181			   u32 max_stack, bool crosstask, bool add_mark)
   182	{
   183		struct perf_callchain_entry *entry;
   184		struct perf_callchain_entry_ctx ctx;
   185		int rctx;
   186	
   187		entry = get_callchain_entry(&rctx);
   188		if (rctx == -1)
   189			return NULL;
   190	
   191		if (!entry)
   192			goto exit_put;
   193	
   194		ctx.entry     = entry;
   195		ctx.max_stack = max_stack;
   196		ctx.nr	      = entry->nr = init_nr;
   197		ctx.contexts       = 0;
   198		ctx.contexts_maxed = false;
   199	
   200		if (kernel && !user_mode(regs)) {
 > 201			struct kretprobe_instance *ri = current_kretprobe_instance();
   202	
   203			if (add_mark)
   204				perf_callchain_store_context(&ctx, PERF_CONTEXT_KERNEL);
   205			if (ri)
 > 206				kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel(ri, &ctx);
   207			else
   208				perf_callchain_kernel(&ctx, regs);
   209		}
   210	
   211		if (user) {
   212			if (!user_mode(regs)) {
   213				if  (current->mm)
   214					regs = task_pt_regs(current);
   215				else
   216					regs = NULL;
   217			}
   218	
   219			if (regs) {
   220				mm_segment_t fs;
   221	
   222				if (crosstask)
   223					goto exit_put;
   224	
   225				if (add_mark)
   226					perf_callchain_store_context(&ctx, PERF_CONTEXT_USER);
   227	
   228				fs = get_fs();
   229				set_fs(USER_DS);
   230				perf_callchain_user(&ctx, regs);
   231				set_fs(fs);
   232			}
   233		}
   234	
   235	exit_put:
   236		put_callchain_entry(rctx);
   237	
   238		return entry;
   239	}
   240	

---
0-DAY kernel test infrastructure                Open Source Technology Center
https://lists.01.org/pipermail/kbuild-all                   Intel Corporation

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/kprobes.txt b/Documentation/kprobes.txt
index 10f4499e677c..1965585848f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/kprobes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kprobes.txt
@@ -597,7 +597,11 @@  address with the trampoline's address, stack backtraces and calls
 to __builtin_return_address() will typically yield the trampoline's
 address instead of the real return address for kretprobed functions.
 (As far as we can tell, __builtin_return_address() is used only
-for instrumentation and error reporting.)
+for instrumentation and error reporting.) However, since return probes
+are used extensively in tracing (where stack backtraces are useful),
+return probes will stash away the stack backtrace during function entry
+so that return probe handlers can use the entry backtrace instead of
+having a trace with just kretprobe_trampoline.
 
 If the number of times a function is called does not match the number
 of times it returns, registering a return probe on that function may
diff --git a/include/linux/kprobes.h b/include/linux/kprobes.h
index e909413e4e38..b2d6e8b74731 100644
--- a/include/linux/kprobes.h
+++ b/include/linux/kprobes.h
@@ -40,6 +40,8 @@ 
 #include <linux/rcupdate.h>
 #include <linux/mutex.h>
 #include <linux/ftrace.h>
+#include <linux/stacktrace.h>
+#include <linux/perf_event.h>
 #include <asm/kprobes.h>
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_KPROBES
@@ -168,11 +170,18 @@  struct kretprobe {
 	raw_spinlock_t lock;
 };
 
+#define KRETPROBE_TRACE_SIZE 127
+struct kretprobe_trace {
+	int nr_entries;
+	unsigned long entries[KRETPROBE_TRACE_SIZE];
+};
+
 struct kretprobe_instance {
 	struct hlist_node hlist;
 	struct kretprobe *rp;
 	kprobe_opcode_t *ret_addr;
 	struct task_struct *task;
+	struct kretprobe_trace entry;
 	char data[0];
 };
 
@@ -371,6 +380,12 @@  void unregister_kretprobe(struct kretprobe *rp);
 int register_kretprobes(struct kretprobe **rps, int num);
 void unregister_kretprobes(struct kretprobe **rps, int num);
 
+struct kretprobe_instance *current_kretprobe_instance(void);
+void kretprobe_save_stack_trace(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
+				struct stack_trace *trace);
+void kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
+				     struct perf_callchain_entry_ctx *ctx);
+
 void kprobe_flush_task(struct task_struct *tk);
 void recycle_rp_inst(struct kretprobe_instance *ri, struct hlist_head *head);
 
diff --git a/kernel/events/callchain.c b/kernel/events/callchain.c
index 24a77c34e9ad..98edcd8a6987 100644
--- a/kernel/events/callchain.c
+++ b/kernel/events/callchain.c
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/perf_event.h>
 #include <linux/slab.h>
 #include <linux/sched/task_stack.h>
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
 
 #include "internal.h"
 
@@ -197,9 +198,14 @@  get_perf_callchain(struct pt_regs *regs, u32 init_nr, bool kernel, bool user,
 	ctx.contexts_maxed = false;
 
 	if (kernel && !user_mode(regs)) {
+		struct kretprobe_instance *ri = current_kretprobe_instance();
+
 		if (add_mark)
 			perf_callchain_store_context(&ctx, PERF_CONTEXT_KERNEL);
-		perf_callchain_kernel(&ctx, regs);
+		if (ri)
+			kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel(ri, &ctx);
+		else
+			perf_callchain_kernel(&ctx, regs);
 	}
 
 	if (user) {
diff --git a/kernel/kprobes.c b/kernel/kprobes.c
index 90e98e233647..fca3964d18cd 100644
--- a/kernel/kprobes.c
+++ b/kernel/kprobes.c
@@ -1206,6 +1206,16 @@  __releases(hlist_lock)
 }
 NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kretprobe_table_unlock);
 
+static bool kretprobe_hash_is_locked(struct task_struct *tsk)
+{
+	unsigned long hash = hash_ptr(tsk, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
+	raw_spinlock_t *hlist_lock;
+
+	hlist_lock = kretprobe_table_lock_ptr(hash);
+	return raw_spin_is_locked(hlist_lock);
+}
+NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(kretprobe_hash_is_locked);
+
 /*
  * This function is called from finish_task_switch when task tk becomes dead,
  * so that we can recycle any function-return probe instances associated
@@ -1800,6 +1810,13 @@  unsigned long __weak arch_deref_entry_point(void *entry)
 	return (unsigned long)entry;
 }
 
+static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs);
+
+static inline bool kprobe_is_retprobe(struct kprobe *kp)
+{
+	return kp->pre_handler == pre_handler_kretprobe;
+}
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_KRETPROBES
 /*
  * This kprobe pre_handler is registered with every kretprobe. When probe
@@ -1826,6 +1843,8 @@  static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
 	hash = hash_ptr(current, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
 	raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&rp->lock, flags);
 	if (!hlist_empty(&rp->free_instances)) {
+		struct stack_trace trace = {};
+
 		ri = hlist_entry(rp->free_instances.first,
 				struct kretprobe_instance, hlist);
 		hlist_del(&ri->hlist);
@@ -1834,6 +1853,11 @@  static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
 		ri->rp = rp;
 		ri->task = current;
 
+		trace.entries = &ri->entry.entries[0];
+		trace.max_entries = KRETPROBE_TRACE_SIZE;
+		save_stack_trace_regs(regs, &trace);
+		ri->entry.nr_entries = trace.nr_entries;
+
 		if (rp->entry_handler && rp->entry_handler(ri, regs)) {
 			raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&rp->lock, flags);
 			hlist_add_head(&ri->hlist, &rp->free_instances);
@@ -1856,6 +1880,65 @@  static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
 }
 NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(pre_handler_kretprobe);
 
+/*
+ * Return the kretprobe_instance associated with the current_kprobe. Calling
+ * this is only reasonable from within a kretprobe handler context (otherwise
+ * return NULL).
+ *
+ * Must be called within a kretprobe_hash_lock(current, ...) context.
+ */
+struct kretprobe_instance *current_kretprobe_instance(void)
+{
+	struct kprobe *kp;
+	struct kretprobe *rp;
+	struct kretprobe_instance *ri;
+	struct hlist_head *head;
+	unsigned long hash = hash_ptr(current, KPROBE_HASH_BITS);
+
+	kp = kprobe_running();
+	if (!kp || !kprobe_is_retprobe(kp))
+		return NULL;
+	if (WARN_ON(!kretprobe_hash_is_locked(current)))
+		return NULL;
+
+	rp = container_of(kp, struct kretprobe, kp);
+	head = &kretprobe_inst_table[hash];
+
+	hlist_for_each_entry(ri, head, hlist) {
+		if (ri->task == current && ri->rp == rp)
+			return ri;
+	}
+	return NULL;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(current_kretprobe_instance);
+NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(current_kretprobe_instance);
+
+void kretprobe_save_stack_trace(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
+				struct stack_trace *trace)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct kretprobe_trace *krt = &ri->entry;
+
+	for (i = trace->skip; i < krt->nr_entries; i++) {
+		if (trace->nr_entries >= trace->max_entries)
+			break;
+		trace->entries[trace->nr_entries++] = krt->entries[i];
+	}
+}
+
+void kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
+				     struct perf_callchain_entry_ctx *ctx)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct kretprobe_trace *krt = &ri->entry;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < krt->nr_entries; i++) {
+		if (krt->entries[i] == ULONG_MAX)
+			break;
+		perf_callchain_store(ctx, (u64) krt->entries[i]);
+	}
+}
+
 bool __weak arch_kprobe_on_func_entry(unsigned long offset)
 {
 	return !offset;
@@ -2005,6 +2088,22 @@  static int pre_handler_kretprobe(struct kprobe *p, struct pt_regs *regs)
 }
 NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(pre_handler_kretprobe);
 
+struct kretprobe_instance *current_kretprobe_instance(void)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(current_kretprobe_instance);
+NOKPROBE_SYMBOL(current_kretprobe_instance);
+
+void kretprobe_save_stack_trace(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
+				struct stack_trace *trace)
+{
+}
+
+void kretprobe_perf_callchain_kernel(struct kretprobe_instance *ri,
+				     struct perf_callchain_entry_ctx *ctx)
+{
+}
 #endif /* CONFIG_KRETPROBES */
 
 /* Set the kprobe gone and remove its instruction buffer. */
@@ -2241,7 +2340,7 @@  static void report_probe(struct seq_file *pi, struct kprobe *p,
 	char *kprobe_type;
 	void *addr = p->addr;
 
-	if (p->pre_handler == pre_handler_kretprobe)
+	if (kprobe_is_retprobe(p))
 		kprobe_type = "r";
 	else
 		kprobe_type = "k";
diff --git a/kernel/trace/trace.c b/kernel/trace/trace.c
index bf6f1d70484d..2210d38a4dbf 100644
--- a/kernel/trace/trace.c
+++ b/kernel/trace/trace.c
@@ -42,6 +42,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/nmi.h>
 #include <linux/fs.h>
 #include <linux/trace.h>
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
 #include <linux/sched/clock.h>
 #include <linux/sched/rt.h>
 
@@ -2590,6 +2591,7 @@  static void __ftrace_trace_stack(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
 	struct ring_buffer_event *event;
 	struct stack_entry *entry;
 	struct stack_trace trace;
+	struct kretprobe_instance *ri = current_kretprobe_instance();
 	int use_stack;
 	int size = FTRACE_STACK_ENTRIES;
 
@@ -2626,7 +2628,9 @@  static void __ftrace_trace_stack(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
 		trace.entries		= this_cpu_ptr(ftrace_stack.calls);
 		trace.max_entries	= FTRACE_STACK_MAX_ENTRIES;
 
-		if (regs)
+		if (ri)
+			kretprobe_save_stack_trace(ri, &trace);
+		else if (regs)
 			save_stack_trace_regs(regs, &trace);
 		else
 			save_stack_trace(&trace);
@@ -2653,7 +2657,10 @@  static void __ftrace_trace_stack(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
 	else {
 		trace.max_entries	= FTRACE_STACK_ENTRIES;
 		trace.entries		= entry->caller;
-		if (regs)
+
+		if (ri)
+			kretprobe_save_stack_trace(ri, &trace);
+		else if (regs)
 			save_stack_trace_regs(regs, &trace);
 		else
 			save_stack_trace(&trace);
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/ftrace/test.d/kprobe/kretprobe_stacktrace.tc b/tools/testing/selftests/ftrace/test.d/kprobe/kretprobe_stacktrace.tc
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..03146c6a1a3c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/ftrace/test.d/kprobe/kretprobe_stacktrace.tc
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@ 
+#!/bin/sh
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
+# description: Kretprobe dynamic event with a stacktrace
+
+[ -f kprobe_events ] || exit_unsupported # this is configurable
+
+echo 0 > events/enable
+echo 1 > options/stacktrace
+
+echo 'r:teststackprobe sched_fork $retval' > kprobe_events
+grep teststackprobe kprobe_events
+test -d events/kprobes/teststackprobe
+
+clear_trace
+echo 1 > events/kprobes/teststackprobe/enable
+( echo "forked")
+echo 0 > events/kprobes/teststackprobe/enable
+
+# Make sure we don't see kretprobe_trampoline and we see _do_fork.
+! grep 'kretprobe' trace
+grep '_do_fork' trace
+
+echo '-:teststackprobe' >> kprobe_events
+clear_trace
+test -d events/kprobes/teststackprobe && exit_fail || exit_pass