[v9,2/3] arm64: Define Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
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Message ID 20190821164730.47450-3-catalin.marinas@arm.com
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  • arm64 tagged address ABI
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Commit Message

Catalin Marinas Aug. 21, 2019, 4:47 p.m. UTC
From: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>

On AArch64 the TCR_EL1.TBI0 bit is set by default, allowing userspace
(EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with a non-zero
top byte. Introduce the document describing the relaxation of the
syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
kernel syscalls.

Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Cc: Szabolcs Nagy <szabolcs.nagy@arm.com>
Cc: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
Co-developed-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
---
 Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst | 156 +++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 156 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst

Comments

Andrey Konovalov Aug. 21, 2019, 4:57 p.m. UTC | #1
On Wed, Aug 21, 2019 at 6:47 PM Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> wrote:
>
> From: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
>
> On AArch64 the TCR_EL1.TBI0 bit is set by default, allowing userspace
> (EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with a non-zero
> top byte. Introduce the document describing the relaxation of the
> syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
> kernel syscalls.
>
> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
> Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
> Cc: Szabolcs Nagy <szabolcs.nagy@arm.com>
> Cc: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>
> Signed-off-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
> Co-developed-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>

Acked-by: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>


> ---
>  Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst | 156 +++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 156 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst b/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..d4a85d535bf9
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,156 @@
> +==========================
> +AArch64 TAGGED ADDRESS ABI
> +==========================
> +
> +Authors: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
> +         Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> +
> +Date: 21 August 2019
> +
> +This document describes the usage and semantics of the Tagged Address
> +ABI on AArch64 Linux.
> +
> +1. Introduction
> +---------------
> +
> +On AArch64 the ``TCR_EL1.TBI0`` bit is set by default, allowing
> +userspace (EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with
> +a non-zero top byte. This document describes the relaxation of the
> +syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
> +kernel syscalls.
> +
> +2. AArch64 Tagged Address ABI
> +-----------------------------
> +
> +From the kernel syscall interface perspective and for the purposes of
> +this document, a "valid tagged pointer" is a pointer with a potentially
> +non-zero top-byte that references an address in the user process address
> +space obtained in one of the following ways:
> +
> +- ``mmap()`` syscall where either:
> +
> +  - flags have the ``MAP_ANONYMOUS`` bit set or
> +  - the file descriptor refers to a regular file (including those
> +    returned by ``memfd_create()``) or ``/dev/zero``
> +
> +- ``brk()`` syscall (i.e. the heap area between the initial location of
> +  the program break at process creation and its current location).
> +
> +- any memory mapped by the kernel in the address space of the process
> +  during creation and with the same restrictions as for ``mmap()`` above
> +  (e.g. data, bss, stack).
> +
> +The AArch64 Tagged Address ABI has two stages of relaxation depending
> +how the user addresses are used by the kernel:
> +
> +1. User addresses not accessed by the kernel but used for address space
> +   management (e.g. ``mmap()``, ``mprotect()``, ``madvise()``). The use
> +   of valid tagged pointers in this context is always allowed.
> +
> +2. User addresses accessed by the kernel (e.g. ``write()``). This ABI
> +   relaxation is disabled by default and the application thread needs to
> +   explicitly enable it via ``prctl()`` as follows:
> +
> +   - ``PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL``: enable or disable the AArch64 Tagged
> +     Address ABI for the calling thread.
> +
> +     The ``(unsigned int) arg2`` argument is a bit mask describing the
> +     control mode used:
> +
> +     - ``PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE``: enable AArch64 Tagged Address ABI.
> +       Default status is disabled.
> +
> +     Arguments ``arg3``, ``arg4``, and ``arg5`` must be 0.
> +
> +   - ``PR_GET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL``: get the status of the AArch64 Tagged
> +     Address ABI for the calling thread.
> +
> +     Arguments ``arg2``, ``arg3``, ``arg4``, and ``arg5`` must be 0.
> +
> +   The ABI properties described above are thread-scoped, inherited on
> +   clone() and fork() and cleared on exec().
> +
> +   Calling ``prctl(PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL, PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE, 0, 0, 0)``
> +   returns ``-EINVAL`` if the AArch64 Tagged Address ABI is globally
> +   disabled by ``sysctl abi.tagged_addr_disabled=1``. The default
> +   ``sysctl abi.tagged_addr_disabled`` configuration is 0.
> +
> +When the AArch64 Tagged Address ABI is enabled for a thread, the
> +following behaviours are guaranteed:
> +
> +- All syscalls except the cases mentioned in section 3 can accept any
> +  valid tagged pointer.
> +
> +- The syscall behaviour is undefined for invalid tagged pointers: it may
> +  result in an error code being returned, a (fatal) signal being raised,
> +  or other modes of failure.
> +
> +- The syscall behaviour for a valid tagged pointer is the same as for
> +  the corresponding untagged pointer.
> +
> +
> +A definition of the meaning of tagged pointers on AArch64 can be found
> +in Documentation/arm64/tagged-pointers.rst.
> +
> +3. AArch64 Tagged Address ABI Exceptions
> +-----------------------------------------
> +
> +The following system call parameters must be untagged regardless of the
> +ABI relaxation:
> +
> +- ``prctl()`` other than pointers to user data either passed directly or
> +  indirectly as arguments to be accessed by the kernel.
> +
> +- ``ioctl()`` other than pointers to user data either passed directly or
> +  indirectly as arguments to be accessed by the kernel.
> +
> +- ``shmat()`` and ``shmdt()``.
> +
> +Any attempt to use non-zero tagged pointers may result in an error code
> +being returned, a (fatal) signal being raised, or other modes of
> +failure.
> +
> +4. Example of correct usage
> +---------------------------
> +.. code-block:: c
> +
> +   #include <stdlib.h>
> +   #include <string.h>
> +   #include <unistd.h>
> +   #include <sys/mman.h>
> +   #include <sys/prctl.h>
> +
> +   #define PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL     55
> +   #define PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE       (1UL << 0)
> +
> +   #define TAG_SHIFT           56
> +
> +   int main(void)
> +   {
> +       int tbi_enabled = 0;
> +       unsigned long tag = 0;
> +       char *ptr;
> +
> +       /* check/enable the tagged address ABI */
> +       if (!prctl(PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL, PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE, 0, 0, 0))
> +               tbi_enabled = 1;
> +
> +       /* memory allocation */
> +       ptr = mmap(NULL, sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE), PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
> +                  MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0);
> +       if (ptr == MAP_FAILED)
> +               return 1;
> +
> +       /* set a non-zero tag if the ABI is available */
> +       if (tbi_enabled)
> +               tag = rand() & 0xff;
> +       ptr = (char *)((unsigned long)ptr | (tag << TAG_SHIFT));
> +
> +       /* memory access to a tagged address */
> +       strcpy(ptr, "tagged pointer\n");
> +
> +       /* syscall with a tagged pointer */
> +       write(1, ptr, strlen(ptr));
> +
> +       return 0;
> +   }
Will Deacon Aug. 21, 2019, 5:35 p.m. UTC | #2
On Wed, Aug 21, 2019 at 05:47:29PM +0100, Catalin Marinas wrote:
> From: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
> 
> On AArch64 the TCR_EL1.TBI0 bit is set by default, allowing userspace
> (EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with a non-zero
> top byte. Introduce the document describing the relaxation of the
> syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
> kernel syscalls.
> 
> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
> Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
> Cc: Szabolcs Nagy <szabolcs.nagy@arm.com>
> Cc: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>
> Signed-off-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
> Co-developed-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst | 156 +++++++++++++++++++++
>  1 file changed, 156 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst

Thanks, I'll pick this on up.

Will
Kevin Brodsky Aug. 22, 2019, 9:38 a.m. UTC | #3
On 21/08/2019 17:57, Andrey Konovalov wrote:
> On Wed, Aug 21, 2019 at 6:47 PM Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> wrote:
>> From: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
>>
>> On AArch64 the TCR_EL1.TBI0 bit is set by default, allowing userspace
>> (EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with a non-zero
>> top byte. Introduce the document describing the relaxation of the
>> syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
>> kernel syscalls.
>>
>> Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
>> Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
>> Cc: Szabolcs Nagy <szabolcs.nagy@arm.com>
>> Cc: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>
>> Signed-off-by: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
>> Co-developed-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
>> Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
> Acked-by: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>

Acked-by: Kevin Brodsky <kevin.brodsky@arm.com>

>> ---
>>   Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst | 156 +++++++++++++++++++++
>>   1 file changed, 156 insertions(+)
>>   create mode 100644 Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
>>
>> diff --git a/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst b/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 000000000000..d4a85d535bf9
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
>> @@ -0,0 +1,156 @@
>> +==========================
>> +AArch64 TAGGED ADDRESS ABI
>> +==========================
>> +
>> +Authors: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
>> +         Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
>> +
>> +Date: 21 August 2019
>> +
>> +This document describes the usage and semantics of the Tagged Address
>> +ABI on AArch64 Linux.
>> +
>> +1. Introduction
>> +---------------
>> +
>> +On AArch64 the ``TCR_EL1.TBI0`` bit is set by default, allowing
>> +userspace (EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with
>> +a non-zero top byte. This document describes the relaxation of the
>> +syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
>> +kernel syscalls.
>> +
>> +2. AArch64 Tagged Address ABI
>> +-----------------------------
>> +
>> +From the kernel syscall interface perspective and for the purposes of
>> +this document, a "valid tagged pointer" is a pointer with a potentially
>> +non-zero top-byte that references an address in the user process address
>> +space obtained in one of the following ways:
>> +
>> +- ``mmap()`` syscall where either:
>> +
>> +  - flags have the ``MAP_ANONYMOUS`` bit set or
>> +  - the file descriptor refers to a regular file (including those
>> +    returned by ``memfd_create()``) or ``/dev/zero``
>> +
>> +- ``brk()`` syscall (i.e. the heap area between the initial location of
>> +  the program break at process creation and its current location).
>> +
>> +- any memory mapped by the kernel in the address space of the process
>> +  during creation and with the same restrictions as for ``mmap()`` above
>> +  (e.g. data, bss, stack).
>> +
>> +The AArch64 Tagged Address ABI has two stages of relaxation depending
>> +how the user addresses are used by the kernel:
>> +
>> +1. User addresses not accessed by the kernel but used for address space
>> +   management (e.g. ``mmap()``, ``mprotect()``, ``madvise()``). The use
>> +   of valid tagged pointers in this context is always allowed.
>> +
>> +2. User addresses accessed by the kernel (e.g. ``write()``). This ABI
>> +   relaxation is disabled by default and the application thread needs to
>> +   explicitly enable it via ``prctl()`` as follows:
>> +
>> +   - ``PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL``: enable or disable the AArch64 Tagged
>> +     Address ABI for the calling thread.
>> +
>> +     The ``(unsigned int) arg2`` argument is a bit mask describing the
>> +     control mode used:
>> +
>> +     - ``PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE``: enable AArch64 Tagged Address ABI.
>> +       Default status is disabled.
>> +
>> +     Arguments ``arg3``, ``arg4``, and ``arg5`` must be 0.
>> +
>> +   - ``PR_GET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL``: get the status of the AArch64 Tagged
>> +     Address ABI for the calling thread.
>> +
>> +     Arguments ``arg2``, ``arg3``, ``arg4``, and ``arg5`` must be 0.
>> +
>> +   The ABI properties described above are thread-scoped, inherited on
>> +   clone() and fork() and cleared on exec().
>> +
>> +   Calling ``prctl(PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL, PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE, 0, 0, 0)``
>> +   returns ``-EINVAL`` if the AArch64 Tagged Address ABI is globally
>> +   disabled by ``sysctl abi.tagged_addr_disabled=1``. The default
>> +   ``sysctl abi.tagged_addr_disabled`` configuration is 0.
>> +
>> +When the AArch64 Tagged Address ABI is enabled for a thread, the
>> +following behaviours are guaranteed:
>> +
>> +- All syscalls except the cases mentioned in section 3 can accept any
>> +  valid tagged pointer.
>> +
>> +- The syscall behaviour is undefined for invalid tagged pointers: it may
>> +  result in an error code being returned, a (fatal) signal being raised,
>> +  or other modes of failure.
>> +
>> +- The syscall behaviour for a valid tagged pointer is the same as for
>> +  the corresponding untagged pointer.
>> +
>> +
>> +A definition of the meaning of tagged pointers on AArch64 can be found
>> +in Documentation/arm64/tagged-pointers.rst.
>> +
>> +3. AArch64 Tagged Address ABI Exceptions
>> +-----------------------------------------
>> +
>> +The following system call parameters must be untagged regardless of the
>> +ABI relaxation:
>> +
>> +- ``prctl()`` other than pointers to user data either passed directly or
>> +  indirectly as arguments to be accessed by the kernel.
>> +
>> +- ``ioctl()`` other than pointers to user data either passed directly or
>> +  indirectly as arguments to be accessed by the kernel.
>> +
>> +- ``shmat()`` and ``shmdt()``.
>> +
>> +Any attempt to use non-zero tagged pointers may result in an error code
>> +being returned, a (fatal) signal being raised, or other modes of
>> +failure.
>> +
>> +4. Example of correct usage
>> +---------------------------
>> +.. code-block:: c
>> +
>> +   #include <stdlib.h>
>> +   #include <string.h>
>> +   #include <unistd.h>
>> +   #include <sys/mman.h>
>> +   #include <sys/prctl.h>
>> +
>> +   #define PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL     55
>> +   #define PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE       (1UL << 0)
>> +
>> +   #define TAG_SHIFT           56
>> +
>> +   int main(void)
>> +   {
>> +       int tbi_enabled = 0;
>> +       unsigned long tag = 0;
>> +       char *ptr;
>> +
>> +       /* check/enable the tagged address ABI */
>> +       if (!prctl(PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL, PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE, 0, 0, 0))
>> +               tbi_enabled = 1;
>> +
>> +       /* memory allocation */
>> +       ptr = mmap(NULL, sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE), PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
>> +                  MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0);
>> +       if (ptr == MAP_FAILED)
>> +               return 1;
>> +
>> +       /* set a non-zero tag if the ABI is available */
>> +       if (tbi_enabled)
>> +               tag = rand() & 0xff;
>> +       ptr = (char *)((unsigned long)ptr | (tag << TAG_SHIFT));
>> +
>> +       /* memory access to a tagged address */
>> +       strcpy(ptr, "tagged pointer\n");
>> +
>> +       /* syscall with a tagged pointer */
>> +       write(1, ptr, strlen(ptr));
>> +
>> +       return 0;
>> +   }

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst b/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d4a85d535bf9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/arm64/tagged-address-abi.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,156 @@ 
+==========================
+AArch64 TAGGED ADDRESS ABI
+==========================
+
+Authors: Vincenzo Frascino <vincenzo.frascino@arm.com>
+         Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
+
+Date: 21 August 2019
+
+This document describes the usage and semantics of the Tagged Address
+ABI on AArch64 Linux.
+
+1. Introduction
+---------------
+
+On AArch64 the ``TCR_EL1.TBI0`` bit is set by default, allowing
+userspace (EL0) to perform memory accesses through 64-bit pointers with
+a non-zero top byte. This document describes the relaxation of the
+syscall ABI that allows userspace to pass certain tagged pointers to
+kernel syscalls.
+
+2. AArch64 Tagged Address ABI
+-----------------------------
+
+From the kernel syscall interface perspective and for the purposes of
+this document, a "valid tagged pointer" is a pointer with a potentially
+non-zero top-byte that references an address in the user process address
+space obtained in one of the following ways:
+
+- ``mmap()`` syscall where either:
+
+  - flags have the ``MAP_ANONYMOUS`` bit set or
+  - the file descriptor refers to a regular file (including those
+    returned by ``memfd_create()``) or ``/dev/zero``
+
+- ``brk()`` syscall (i.e. the heap area between the initial location of
+  the program break at process creation and its current location).
+
+- any memory mapped by the kernel in the address space of the process
+  during creation and with the same restrictions as for ``mmap()`` above
+  (e.g. data, bss, stack).
+
+The AArch64 Tagged Address ABI has two stages of relaxation depending
+how the user addresses are used by the kernel:
+
+1. User addresses not accessed by the kernel but used for address space
+   management (e.g. ``mmap()``, ``mprotect()``, ``madvise()``). The use
+   of valid tagged pointers in this context is always allowed.
+
+2. User addresses accessed by the kernel (e.g. ``write()``). This ABI
+   relaxation is disabled by default and the application thread needs to
+   explicitly enable it via ``prctl()`` as follows:
+
+   - ``PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL``: enable or disable the AArch64 Tagged
+     Address ABI for the calling thread.
+
+     The ``(unsigned int) arg2`` argument is a bit mask describing the
+     control mode used:
+
+     - ``PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE``: enable AArch64 Tagged Address ABI.
+       Default status is disabled.
+
+     Arguments ``arg3``, ``arg4``, and ``arg5`` must be 0.
+
+   - ``PR_GET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL``: get the status of the AArch64 Tagged
+     Address ABI for the calling thread.
+
+     Arguments ``arg2``, ``arg3``, ``arg4``, and ``arg5`` must be 0.
+
+   The ABI properties described above are thread-scoped, inherited on
+   clone() and fork() and cleared on exec().
+
+   Calling ``prctl(PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL, PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE, 0, 0, 0)``
+   returns ``-EINVAL`` if the AArch64 Tagged Address ABI is globally
+   disabled by ``sysctl abi.tagged_addr_disabled=1``. The default
+   ``sysctl abi.tagged_addr_disabled`` configuration is 0.
+
+When the AArch64 Tagged Address ABI is enabled for a thread, the
+following behaviours are guaranteed:
+
+- All syscalls except the cases mentioned in section 3 can accept any
+  valid tagged pointer.
+
+- The syscall behaviour is undefined for invalid tagged pointers: it may
+  result in an error code being returned, a (fatal) signal being raised,
+  or other modes of failure.
+
+- The syscall behaviour for a valid tagged pointer is the same as for
+  the corresponding untagged pointer.
+
+
+A definition of the meaning of tagged pointers on AArch64 can be found
+in Documentation/arm64/tagged-pointers.rst.
+
+3. AArch64 Tagged Address ABI Exceptions
+-----------------------------------------
+
+The following system call parameters must be untagged regardless of the
+ABI relaxation:
+
+- ``prctl()`` other than pointers to user data either passed directly or
+  indirectly as arguments to be accessed by the kernel.
+
+- ``ioctl()`` other than pointers to user data either passed directly or
+  indirectly as arguments to be accessed by the kernel.
+
+- ``shmat()`` and ``shmdt()``.
+
+Any attempt to use non-zero tagged pointers may result in an error code
+being returned, a (fatal) signal being raised, or other modes of
+failure.
+
+4. Example of correct usage
+---------------------------
+.. code-block:: c
+
+   #include <stdlib.h>
+   #include <string.h>
+   #include <unistd.h>
+   #include <sys/mman.h>
+   #include <sys/prctl.h>
+   
+   #define PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL	55
+   #define PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE	(1UL << 0)
+   
+   #define TAG_SHIFT		56
+   
+   int main(void)
+   {
+   	int tbi_enabled = 0;
+   	unsigned long tag = 0;
+   	char *ptr;
+   
+   	/* check/enable the tagged address ABI */
+   	if (!prctl(PR_SET_TAGGED_ADDR_CTRL, PR_TAGGED_ADDR_ENABLE, 0, 0, 0))
+   		tbi_enabled = 1;
+   
+   	/* memory allocation */
+   	ptr = mmap(NULL, sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE), PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
+   		   MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, -1, 0);
+   	if (ptr == MAP_FAILED)
+   		return 1;
+   
+   	/* set a non-zero tag if the ABI is available */
+   	if (tbi_enabled)
+   		tag = rand() & 0xff;
+   	ptr = (char *)((unsigned long)ptr | (tag << TAG_SHIFT));
+   
+   	/* memory access to a tagged address */
+   	strcpy(ptr, "tagged pointer\n");
+   
+   	/* syscall with a tagged pointer */
+   	write(1, ptr, strlen(ptr));
+   
+   	return 0;
+   }