[v4,03/19] rebase (interactive-backend): make --keep-empty the default
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Message ID 179f82ab83e669ca8da7ce999607cae584bc18df.1579155273.git.gitgitgadget@gmail.com
State New
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Series
  • rebase: make the default backend configurable
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Commit Message

Elijah Newren via GitGitGadget Jan. 16, 2020, 6:14 a.m. UTC
From: Elijah Newren <newren@gmail.com>

Different rebase backends have different treatment for commits which
start empty (i.e. have no changes relative to their parent), and the
--keep-empty option was added at some point to allow adjusting behavior
for the interactive backend.  The handling of commits which start empty
is actually quite similar to commit b00bf1c9a8dd (git-rebase: make
--allow-empty-message the default, 2018-06-27), which pointed out that
the behavior for various backends is often more happenstance than
design.  The specific change made in that commit is actually quite
relevant as well and much of the logic there directly applies here.

It makes a lot of sense in 'git commit' to error out on the creation of
empty commits, unless an override flag is provided.  However, once
someone determines that there is a rare case that merits using the
manual override to create such a commit, it is somewhere between
annoying and harmful to have to take extra steps to keep such
intentional commits around.  Granted, empty commits are quite rare,
which is why handling of them doesn't get considered much and folks tend
to defer to existing (accidental) behavior and assume there was a reason
for it, leading them to just add flags (--keep-empty in this case) that
allow them to override the bad defaults.  Fix the interactive backend so
that --keep-empty is the default, much like we did with
--allow-empty-message.  The am backend should also be fixed to have
--keep-empty semantics for commits that start empty, but that is not
included in this patch other than a testcase documenting the failure.

Note that there was one test in t3421 which appears to have been written
expecting --keep-empty to not be the default as correct behavior.  This
test was introduced in commit 00b8be5a4d38 ("add tests for rebasing of
empty commits", 2013-06-06), which was part of a series focusing on
rebase topology and which had an interesting original cover letter at
https://lore.kernel.org/git/1347949878-12578-1-git-send-email-martinvonz@gmail.com/
which noted
    Your input especially appreciated on whether you agree with the
    intent of the test cases.
and then went into a long example about how one of the many tests added
had several questions about whether it was correct.  As such, I believe
most the tests in that series were about testing rebase topology with as
many different flags as possible and were not trying to state in general
how those flags should behave otherwise.

Signed-off-by: Elijah Newren <newren@gmail.com>
---
 Documentation/git-rebase.txt      | 24 ++++++-----
 builtin/rebase.c                  | 28 ++++++++----
 rebase-interactive.c              |  7 +--
 rebase-interactive.h              |  2 +-
 sequencer.c                       | 20 +++------
 sequencer.h                       |  2 +-
 t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh | 16 +++----
 t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh           | 72 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh         | 12 +++---
 9 files changed, 128 insertions(+), 55 deletions(-)
 create mode 100755 t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh

Comments

Phillip Wood Feb. 9, 2020, 3:59 p.m. UTC | #1
Hi Elijah

On 16/01/2020 06:14, Elijah Newren via GitGitGadget wrote:
> From: Elijah Newren <newren@gmail.com>
> 
> Different rebase backends have different treatment for commits which
> start empty (i.e. have no changes relative to their parent), and the
> --keep-empty option was added at some point to allow adjusting behavior
> for the interactive backend.

--keep-empty was introduced by 90e1818f9a ("git-rebase: add keep_empty 
flag", 2012-04-20) and was respected for am based rebases as well 
(although the implementation was broken if there were any conflicts)

> The handling of commits which start empty
> is actually quite similar to commit b00bf1c9a8dd (git-rebase: make
> --allow-empty-message the default, 2018-06-27), which pointed out that
> the behavior for various backends is often more happenstance than
> design.  The specific change made in that commit is actually quite
> relevant as well and much of the logic there directly applies here.
> 
> It makes a lot of sense in 'git commit' to error out on the creation of
> empty commits, unless an override flag is provided.  However, once
> someone determines that there is a rare case that merits using the
> manual override to create such a commit, it is somewhere between
> annoying and harmful to have to take extra steps to keep such
> intentional commits around.  Granted, empty commits are quite rare,
> which is why handling of them doesn't get considered much and folks tend
> to defer to existing (accidental) behavior and assume there was a reason
> for it, leading them to just add flags (--keep-empty in this case) that
> allow them to override the bad defaults.  Fix the interactive backend so
> that --keep-empty is the default, much like we did with
> --allow-empty-message.  The am backend should also be fixed to have
> --keep-empty semantics for commits that start empty, but that is not
> included in this patch other than a testcase documenting the failure.

The detailed commit message is great, however I think it would be good 
to point out that this changes things so that --no-keep-empty is parsed 
but does nothing - it is no longer possible to get that behavior. I'm 
not  entirely sure about making --keep-empty hidden given that the am 
backend has a different behavior without it but as we're changing the 
default backend it probably does not matter and it looks like 
--keep-empty combined with an am specific option will still error out 
which is good.

Overall I like this change and it simplifies the implementation which is 
nice. Hopefully no one was relying on --no-keep-empty

> Note that there was one test in t3421 which appears to have been written
> expecting --keep-empty to not be the default as correct behavior.  This
> test was introduced in commit 00b8be5a4d38 ("add tests for rebasing of
> empty commits", 2013-06-06), which was part of a series focusing on
> rebase topology and which had an interesting original cover letter at
> https://lore.kernel.org/git/1347949878-12578-1-git-send-email-martinvonz@gmail.com/
> which noted
>      Your input especially appreciated on whether you agree with the
>      intent of the test cases.
> and then went into a long example about how one of the many tests added
> had several questions about whether it was correct.  As such, I believe
> most the tests in that series were about testing rebase topology with as
> many different flags as possible and were not trying to state in general
> how those flags should behave otherwise.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Elijah Newren <newren@gmail.com>
> ---
>   Documentation/git-rebase.txt      | 24 ++++++-----
>   builtin/rebase.c                  | 28 ++++++++----
>   rebase-interactive.c              |  7 +--
>   rebase-interactive.h              |  2 +-
>   sequencer.c                       | 20 +++------
>   sequencer.h                       |  2 +-
>   t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh | 16 +++----
>   t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh           | 72 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>   t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh         | 12 +++---
>   9 files changed, 128 insertions(+), 55 deletions(-)
>   create mode 100755 t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
> index c83be7ffc2..1d19542d79 100644
> --- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
> @@ -259,10 +259,13 @@ See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
>   	unchanged as a result.
>   
>   --keep-empty::
> -	Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
> -	parents in the result.
> +	No-op.  Rebasing commits that started empty (had no change
> +	relative to their parent) used to fail and this option would
> +	override that behavior, allowing commits with empty changes to
> +	be rebased.  Now commits with no changes do not cause rebasing
> +	to halt.

Maybe mention that --no-keep-empty is no longer respected?

> -See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
> +See also BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
>   
>   --allow-empty-message::
>   	No-op.  Rebasing commits with an empty message used to fail
> @@ -577,15 +580,14 @@ There are some subtle differences how the backends behave.
>   Empty commits
>   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>   
> -The am backend drops any "empty" commits, regardless of whether the
> -commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
> -start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
> -upstream in other commits).
> +The am backend unfortunately drops intentionally empty commits, i.e.
> +commits that started empty, though these are rare in practice.  It
> +also drops commits that become empty and has no option for controlling
> +this behavior.
>   
> -The interactive backend drops commits by default that
> -started empty and halts if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
> -The `--keep-empty` option exists for the interactive backend to allow
> -it to keep commits that started empty.
> +The interactive backend keeps intentionally empty commits.
> +Unfortunately, it always halts whenever it runs across a commit that
> +becomes empty, even when the rebase is not explicitly interactive.
>   
>   Directory rename detection
>   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> diff --git a/builtin/rebase.c b/builtin/rebase.c
> index faa4e0d406..537b3241ce 100644
> --- a/builtin/rebase.c
> +++ b/builtin/rebase.c
> @@ -77,7 +77,6 @@ struct rebase_options {
>   	const char *action;
>   	int signoff;
>   	int allow_rerere_autoupdate;
> -	int keep_empty;
>   	int autosquash;
>   	char *gpg_sign_opt;
>   	int autostash;
> @@ -375,7 +374,6 @@ static int run_rebase_interactive(struct rebase_options *opts,
>   
>   	git_config_get_bool("rebase.abbreviatecommands", &abbreviate_commands);
>   
> -	flags |= opts->keep_empty ? TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY : 0;
>   	flags |= abbreviate_commands ? TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS : 0;
>   	flags |= opts->rebase_merges ? TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES : 0;
>   	flags |= opts->rebase_cousins > 0 ? TODO_LIST_REBASE_COUSINS : 0;
> @@ -439,6 +437,17 @@ static int run_rebase_interactive(struct rebase_options *opts,
>   	return ret;
>   }
>   
> +static int parse_opt_keep_empty(const struct option *opt, const char *arg,
> +				int unset)
> +{
> +	struct rebase_options *opts = opt->value;
> +
> +	BUG_ON_OPT_ARG(arg);
> +
> +	opts->type = REBASE_INTERACTIVE;
> +	return 0;
> +}

This doesn't seem to handle --no-keep-empty (but looking through the 
patch that seems to be intentional)

>   static const char * const builtin_rebase_interactive_usage[] = {
>   	N_("git rebase--interactive [<options>]"),
>   	NULL
> @@ -452,7 +461,10 @@ int cmd_rebase__interactive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
>   	struct option options[] = {
>   		OPT_NEGBIT(0, "ff", &opts.flags, N_("allow fast-forward"),
>   			   REBASE_FORCE),
> -		OPT_BOOL(0, "keep-empty", &opts.keep_empty, N_("keep empty commits")),
> +		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'k', "keep-empty", &options, NULL,
> +			N_("(DEPRECATED) keep empty commits"),
> +			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
> +			parse_opt_keep_empty },
>   		OPT_BOOL_F(0, "allow-empty-message", &opts.allow_empty_message,
>   			   N_("allow commits with empty messages"),
>   			   PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
> @@ -1145,7 +1157,6 @@ static int run_specific_rebase(struct rebase_options *opts, enum action action)
>   		opts->allow_rerere_autoupdate ?
>   			opts->allow_rerere_autoupdate == RERERE_AUTOUPDATE ?
>   			"--rerere-autoupdate" : "--no-rerere-autoupdate" : "");
> -	add_var(&script_snippet, "keep_empty", opts->keep_empty ? "yes" : "");
>   	add_var(&script_snippet, "autosquash", opts->autosquash ? "t" : "");
>   	add_var(&script_snippet, "gpg_sign_opt", opts->gpg_sign_opt);
>   	add_var(&script_snippet, "cmd", opts->cmd);
> @@ -1483,8 +1494,10 @@ int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
>   				 "ignoring them"),
>   			      REBASE_PRESERVE_MERGES, PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
>   		OPT_RERERE_AUTOUPDATE(&options.allow_rerere_autoupdate),
> -		OPT_BOOL('k', "keep-empty", &options.keep_empty,
> -			 N_("preserve empty commits during rebase")),
> +		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'k', "keep-empty", &options, NULL,
> +			N_("(DEPRECATED) keep empty commits"),
> +			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
> +			parse_opt_keep_empty },
>   		OPT_BOOL(0, "autosquash", &options.autosquash,
>   			 N_("move commits that begin with "
>   			    "squash!/fixup! under -i")),
> @@ -1747,9 +1760,6 @@ int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
>   	if (!(options.flags & REBASE_NO_QUIET))
>   		argv_array_push(&options.git_am_opts, "-q");
>   
> -	if (options.keep_empty)
> -		imply_interactive(&options, "--keep-empty");
> -
>   	if (gpg_sign) {
>   		free(options.gpg_sign_opt);
>   		options.gpg_sign_opt = xstrfmt("-S%s", gpg_sign);
> diff --git a/rebase-interactive.c b/rebase-interactive.c
> index aa18ae82b7..7e7b4061bf 100644
> --- a/rebase-interactive.c
> +++ b/rebase-interactive.c
> @@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ static enum missing_commit_check_level get_missing_commit_check_level(void)
>   	return MISSING_COMMIT_CHECK_IGNORE;
>   }
>   
> -void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
> +void append_todo_help(int command_count,
>   		      const char *shortrevisions, const char *shortonto,
>   		      struct strbuf *buf)
>   {
> @@ -80,11 +80,6 @@ void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
>   			"the rebase will be aborted.\n\n");
>   
>   	strbuf_add_commented_lines(buf, msg, strlen(msg));
> -
> -	if (!keep_empty) {
> -		msg = _("Note that empty commits are commented out");
> -		strbuf_add_commented_lines(buf, msg, strlen(msg));
> -	}
>   }
>   
>   int edit_todo_list(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
> diff --git a/rebase-interactive.h b/rebase-interactive.h
> index 44dbb06311..05354ca341 100644
> --- a/rebase-interactive.h
> +++ b/rebase-interactive.h
> @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ struct strbuf;
>   struct repository;
>   struct todo_list;
>   
> -void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
> +void append_todo_help(int command_count,
>   		      const char *shortrevisions, const char *shortonto,
>   		      struct strbuf *buf);
>   int edit_todo_list(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
> diff --git a/sequencer.c b/sequencer.c
> index b9dbf1adb0..c21fc202b1 100644
> --- a/sequencer.c
> +++ b/sequencer.c
> @@ -1489,7 +1489,7 @@ static int allow_empty(struct repository *r,
>   		       struct replay_opts *opts,
>   		       struct commit *commit)
>   {
> -	int index_unchanged, empty_commit;
> +	int index_unchanged, originally_empty;
>   
>   	/*
>   	 * Three cases:
> @@ -1513,10 +1513,10 @@ static int allow_empty(struct repository *r,
>   	if (opts->keep_redundant_commits)
>   		return 1;
>   
> -	empty_commit = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> -	if (empty_commit < 0)
> -		return empty_commit;
> -	if (!empty_commit)
> +	originally_empty = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> +	if (originally_empty < 0)
> +		return originally_empty;
> +	if (!originally_empty)
>   		return 0;
>   	else
>   		return 1;
> @@ -4566,7 +4566,6 @@ static int make_script_with_merges(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
>   				   struct rev_info *revs, struct strbuf *out,
>   				   unsigned flags)
>   {
> -	int keep_empty = flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY;
>   	int rebase_cousins = flags & TODO_LIST_REBASE_COUSINS;
>   	int root_with_onto = flags & TODO_LIST_ROOT_WITH_ONTO;
>   	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT, oneline = STRBUF_INIT;
> @@ -4629,8 +4628,6 @@ static int make_script_with_merges(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
>   		if (!to_merge) {
>   			/* non-merge commit: easy case */
>   			strbuf_reset(&buf);
> -			if (!keep_empty && is_empty)
> -				strbuf_addf(&buf, "%c ", comment_line_char);
>   			strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s %s %s", cmd_pick,
>   				    oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid),
>   				    oneline.buf);
> @@ -4797,7 +4794,6 @@ int sequencer_make_script(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *out, int argc,
>   	struct pretty_print_context pp = {0};
>   	struct rev_info revs;
>   	struct commit *commit;
> -	int keep_empty = flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY;
>   	const char *insn = flags & TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS ? "p" : "pick";
>   	int rebase_merges = flags & TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES;
>   
> @@ -4833,12 +4829,10 @@ int sequencer_make_script(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *out, int argc,
>   		return make_script_with_merges(&pp, &revs, out, flags);
>   
>   	while ((commit = get_revision(&revs))) {
> -		int is_empty  = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> +		int is_empty = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
>   
>   		if (!is_empty && (commit->object.flags & PATCHSAME))
>   			continue;
> -		if (!keep_empty && is_empty)
> -			strbuf_addf(out, "%c ", comment_line_char);
>   		strbuf_addf(out, "%s %s ", insn,
>   			    oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
>   		pretty_print_commit(&pp, commit, out);
> @@ -4975,7 +4969,7 @@ int todo_list_write_to_file(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
>   
>   	todo_list_to_strbuf(r, todo_list, &buf, num, flags);
>   	if (flags & TODO_LIST_APPEND_TODO_HELP)
> -		append_todo_help(flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY, count_commands(todo_list),
> +		append_todo_help(count_commands(todo_list),
>   				 shortrevisions, shortonto, &buf);
>   
>   	res = write_message(buf.buf, buf.len, file, 0);
> diff --git a/sequencer.h b/sequencer.h
> index 9f9ae291e3..c165e0ff25 100644
> --- a/sequencer.h
> +++ b/sequencer.h
> @@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ int sequencer_rollback(struct repository *repo, struct replay_opts *opts);
>   int sequencer_skip(struct repository *repo, struct replay_opts *opts);
>   int sequencer_remove_state(struct replay_opts *opts);
>   
> -#define TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY (1U << 0)
> +/* #define TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY (1U << 0) */ /* No longer used */
>   #define TODO_LIST_SHORTEN_IDS (1U << 1)
>   #define TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS (1U << 2)
>   #define TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES (1U << 3)
> diff --git a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
> index 325072b0a3..57334dca7e 100755
> --- a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
> +++ b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
> @@ -205,17 +205,17 @@ test_expect_success 'setup of linear history for empty commit tests' '
>   test_run_rebase () {
>   	result=$1
>   	shift
> -	test_expect_$result "rebase $* drops empty commit" "
> +	test_expect_$result "rebase $* keeps begin-empty commits" "
>   		reset_rebase &&
> -		git rebase $* c l &&
> -		test_cmp_rev c HEAD~2 &&
> -		test_linear_range 'd l' c..
> +		git rebase $* j l &&
> +		test_cmp_rev c HEAD~4 &&
> +		test_linear_range 'j d k l' c..
>   	"
>   }
> -test_run_rebase success ''
> +test_run_rebase failure ''
>   test_run_rebase success -m
>   test_run_rebase success -i
> -test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
> +test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
>   
>   test_run_rebase () {
>   	result=$1
> @@ -230,7 +230,7 @@ test_run_rebase () {
>   test_run_rebase success ''
>   test_run_rebase success -m
>   test_run_rebase success -i
> -test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
> +test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
>   
>   test_run_rebase () {
>   	result=$1
> @@ -245,7 +245,7 @@ test_run_rebase () {
>   test_run_rebase success ''
>   test_run_rebase success -m
>   test_run_rebase success -i
> -test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
> +test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
>   test_run_rebase success --rebase-merges
>   
>   #       m
> diff --git a/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh b/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
> new file mode 100755
> index 0000000000..22d97e143b
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
> @@ -0,0 +1,72 @@
> +#!/bin/sh
> +
> +test_description='git rebase of commits that start or become empty'
> +
> +. ./test-lib.sh
> +
> +test_expect_success 'setup test repository' '
> +	test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >numbers &&
> +	test_write_lines A B C D E F G H I J >letters &&
> +	git add numbers letters &&
> +	git commit -m A &&
> +
> +	git branch upstream &&
> +	git branch localmods &&
> +
> +	git checkout upstream &&
> +	test_write_lines A B C D E >letters &&
> +	git add letters &&
> +	git commit -m B &&
> +
> +	test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 five 6 7 8 9 ten >numbers &&
> +	git add numbers &&
> +	git commit -m C &&
> +
> +	git checkout localmods &&
> +	test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 five 6 7 8 9 10 >numbers &&
> +	git add numbers &&
> +	git commit -m C2 &&
> +
> +	git commit --allow-empty -m D &&
> +
> +	test_write_lines A B C D E >letters &&
> +	git add letters &&
> +	git commit -m "Five letters ought to be enough for anybody"
> +'
> +
> +test_expect_failure 'rebase (am-backend) with a variety of empty commits' '
> +	test_when_finished "git rebase --abort" &&
> +	git checkout -B testing localmods &&
> +	# rebase (--am) should not drop commits that start empty
> +	git rebase upstream &&
> +
> +	test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
> +	git log --format=%s >actual &&
> +	test_cmp expect actual
> +'
> +
> +test_expect_failure 'rebase --merge with a variety of empty commits' '
> +	test_when_finished "git rebase --abort" &&
> +	git checkout -B testing localmods &&
> +	# rebase --merge should not halt on the commit that becomes empty
> +	git rebase --merge upstream &&
> +
> +	test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
> +	git log --format=%s >actual &&
> +	test_cmp expect actual
> +'
> +
> +GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR=: && export GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR

This doesn't do any harm but I'm not sure it's needed

Best Wishes

Phillip

> +test_expect_success 'rebase --interactive with a variety of empty commits' '
> +	git checkout -B testing localmods &&
> +	test_must_fail git rebase --interactive upstream &&
> +
> +	git rebase --skip &&
> +
> +	test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
> +	git log --format=%s >actual &&
> +	test_cmp expect actual
> +'
> +
> +test_done
> diff --git a/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh b/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh
> index bec48e6a1f..8dceef61cf 100755
> --- a/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh
> +++ b/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh
> @@ -85,23 +85,23 @@ test_expect_failure REBASE_P 'Rebase -Xsubtree --keep-empty --preserve-merges --
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD)" = "Empty commit"
>   '
>   
> -test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --keep-empty --onto commit' '
> +test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --onto commit' '
>   	reset_rebase &&
>   	git checkout -b rebase-onto to-rebase &&
> -	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --keep-empty --onto files-master master &&
> +	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --onto files-master master &&
>   	: first pick results in no changes &&
> -	git rebase --continue &&
> +	git rebase --skip &&
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~2)" = "master4" &&
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~)" = "files_subtree/master5" &&
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD)" = "Empty commit"
>   '
>   
> -test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --keep-empty --rebase-merges --onto commit' '
> +test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --rebase-merges --onto commit' '
>   	reset_rebase &&
>   	git checkout -b rebase-merges-onto to-rebase &&
> -	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --keep-empty --rebase-merges --onto files-master --root &&
> +	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --rebase-merges --onto files-master --root &&
>   	: first pick results in no changes &&
> -	git rebase --continue &&
> +	git rebase --skip &&
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~2)" = "master4" &&
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~)" = "files_subtree/master5" &&
>   	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD)" = "Empty commit"
>
Elijah Newren Feb. 13, 2020, 6:52 p.m. UTC | #2
Hi Phillip,

On Sun, Feb 9, 2020 at 7:59 AM Phillip Wood <phillip.wood123@gmail.com> wrote:
>
> Hi Elijah
>
> On 16/01/2020 06:14, Elijah Newren via GitGitGadget wrote:
> > From: Elijah Newren <newren@gmail.com>
> >
> > Different rebase backends have different treatment for commits which
> > start empty (i.e. have no changes relative to their parent), and the
> > --keep-empty option was added at some point to allow adjusting behavior
> > for the interactive backend.
>
> --keep-empty was introduced by 90e1818f9a ("git-rebase: add keep_empty
> flag", 2012-04-20) and was respected for am based rebases as well
> (although the implementation was broken if there were any conflicts)

Interesting.  If you look closely at commit 90e1818f9a, however,
you'll note that they mentioned that format-patch and am were not
capable of handling the --keep-empty behavior, and so they instead
bypassed those commands and re-implemented a non-error-handling
version of the sequencer backend (simply cherry-picking all the
commits).  Further, that re-implementation ignored other options that
were passed and meant to be interpreted by format-patch or am due to
the fact that format-patch and am were bypassed.  Thus, by a strict
reading, it looks like --keep-empty cannot be considered to have ever
been respected by the am backend.

This was made more concrete by commit  002ee2fe6825 (builtin rebase:
support `keep-empty` option, 2018-09-04) when the --keep-empty flag
was explicitly coded to imply the sequencer backend, thus making it
clear that this option was incompatible with am-based rebases.

This was cemented further by commit 5dacd4abdd3c (git-rebase.txt:
document incompatible options, 2018-06-25), which made it clear to
users that the flags were incompatible.

So, yeah, my commit message isn't quite accurate, but it's not quite
right to claim that --keep-empty worked with the am backend either;
the reality is a bit messier to explain.

> > The handling of commits which start empty
> > is actually quite similar to commit b00bf1c9a8dd (git-rebase: make
> > --allow-empty-message the default, 2018-06-27), which pointed out that
> > the behavior for various backends is often more happenstance than
> > design.  The specific change made in that commit is actually quite
> > relevant as well and much of the logic there directly applies here.
> >
> > It makes a lot of sense in 'git commit' to error out on the creation of
> > empty commits, unless an override flag is provided.  However, once
> > someone determines that there is a rare case that merits using the
> > manual override to create such a commit, it is somewhere between
> > annoying and harmful to have to take extra steps to keep such
> > intentional commits around.  Granted, empty commits are quite rare,
> > which is why handling of them doesn't get considered much and folks tend
> > to defer to existing (accidental) behavior and assume there was a reason
> > for it, leading them to just add flags (--keep-empty in this case) that
> > allow them to override the bad defaults.  Fix the interactive backend so
> > that --keep-empty is the default, much like we did with
> > --allow-empty-message.  The am backend should also be fixed to have
> > --keep-empty semantics for commits that start empty, but that is not
> > included in this patch other than a testcase documenting the failure.
>
> The detailed commit message is great, however I think it would be good
> to point out that this changes things so that --no-keep-empty is parsed
> but does nothing - it is no longer possible to get that behavior. I'm
> not  entirely sure about making --keep-empty hidden given that the am
> backend has a different behavior without it but as we're changing the
> default backend it probably does not matter and it looks like
> --keep-empty combined with an am specific option will still error out
> which is good.

As noted above, the --keep-empty option has always been orthogonal to
the am backend, even if commit messages early on might have implied
otherwise.  Since it was only relevant for sequencer backend(s) and
it's no longer relevant for the (now only) sequencer backend, I think
hiding the option is a good idea.

> Overall I like this change and it simplifies the implementation which is
> nice. Hopefully no one was relying on --no-keep-empty

:-)

> > Note that there was one test in t3421 which appears to have been written
> > expecting --keep-empty to not be the default as correct behavior.  This
> > test was introduced in commit 00b8be5a4d38 ("add tests for rebasing of
> > empty commits", 2013-06-06), which was part of a series focusing on
> > rebase topology and which had an interesting original cover letter at
> > https://lore.kernel.org/git/1347949878-12578-1-git-send-email-martinvonz@gmail.com/
> > which noted
> >      Your input especially appreciated on whether you agree with the
> >      intent of the test cases.
> > and then went into a long example about how one of the many tests added
> > had several questions about whether it was correct.  As such, I believe
> > most the tests in that series were about testing rebase topology with as
> > many different flags as possible and were not trying to state in general
> > how those flags should behave otherwise.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Elijah Newren <newren@gmail.com>
> > ---
> >   Documentation/git-rebase.txt      | 24 ++++++-----
> >   builtin/rebase.c                  | 28 ++++++++----
> >   rebase-interactive.c              |  7 +--
> >   rebase-interactive.h              |  2 +-
> >   sequencer.c                       | 20 +++------
> >   sequencer.h                       |  2 +-
> >   t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh | 16 +++----
> >   t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh           | 72 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> >   t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh         | 12 +++---
> >   9 files changed, 128 insertions(+), 55 deletions(-)
> >   create mode 100755 t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
> >
> > diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
> > index c83be7ffc2..1d19542d79 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
> > +++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
> > @@ -259,10 +259,13 @@ See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
> >       unchanged as a result.
> >
> >   --keep-empty::
> > -     Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
> > -     parents in the result.
> > +     No-op.  Rebasing commits that started empty (had no change
> > +     relative to their parent) used to fail and this option would
> > +     override that behavior, allowing commits with empty changes to
> > +     be rebased.  Now commits with no changes do not cause rebasing
> > +     to halt.
>
> Maybe mention that --no-keep-empty is no longer respected?

Possibly, but I'm somewhat of the mind that If this option wasn't
worth documenting before (as evidenced by the fact that it wasn't) and
wasn't all that interesting in the first place (the only thing it
could do was override a previous --keep-empty), why add the
documentation now --especially since it still only overrides a
previous --keep-empty and overriding a no-op just amounts to a
different-flavored no-op?

> > -See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
> > +See also BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
> >
> >   --allow-empty-message::
> >       No-op.  Rebasing commits with an empty message used to fail
> > @@ -577,15 +580,14 @@ There are some subtle differences how the backends behave.
> >   Empty commits
> >   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> >
> > -The am backend drops any "empty" commits, regardless of whether the
> > -commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
> > -start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
> > -upstream in other commits).
> > +The am backend unfortunately drops intentionally empty commits, i.e.
> > +commits that started empty, though these are rare in practice.  It
> > +also drops commits that become empty and has no option for controlling
> > +this behavior.
> >
> > -The interactive backend drops commits by default that
> > -started empty and halts if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
> > -The `--keep-empty` option exists for the interactive backend to allow
> > -it to keep commits that started empty.
> > +The interactive backend keeps intentionally empty commits.
> > +Unfortunately, it always halts whenever it runs across a commit that
> > +becomes empty, even when the rebase is not explicitly interactive.
> >
> >   Directory rename detection
> >   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> > diff --git a/builtin/rebase.c b/builtin/rebase.c
> > index faa4e0d406..537b3241ce 100644
> > --- a/builtin/rebase.c
> > +++ b/builtin/rebase.c
> > @@ -77,7 +77,6 @@ struct rebase_options {
> >       const char *action;
> >       int signoff;
> >       int allow_rerere_autoupdate;
> > -     int keep_empty;
> >       int autosquash;
> >       char *gpg_sign_opt;
> >       int autostash;
> > @@ -375,7 +374,6 @@ static int run_rebase_interactive(struct rebase_options *opts,
> >
> >       git_config_get_bool("rebase.abbreviatecommands", &abbreviate_commands);
> >
> > -     flags |= opts->keep_empty ? TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY : 0;
> >       flags |= abbreviate_commands ? TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS : 0;
> >       flags |= opts->rebase_merges ? TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES : 0;
> >       flags |= opts->rebase_cousins > 0 ? TODO_LIST_REBASE_COUSINS : 0;
> > @@ -439,6 +437,17 @@ static int run_rebase_interactive(struct rebase_options *opts,
> >       return ret;
> >   }
> >
> > +static int parse_opt_keep_empty(const struct option *opt, const char *arg,
> > +                             int unset)
> > +{
> > +     struct rebase_options *opts = opt->value;
> > +
> > +     BUG_ON_OPT_ARG(arg);
> > +
> > +     opts->type = REBASE_INTERACTIVE;
> > +     return 0;
> > +}
>
> This doesn't seem to handle --no-keep-empty (but looking through the
> patch that seems to be intentional)
>
> >   static const char * const builtin_rebase_interactive_usage[] = {
> >       N_("git rebase--interactive [<options>]"),
> >       NULL
> > @@ -452,7 +461,10 @@ int cmd_rebase__interactive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
> >       struct option options[] = {
> >               OPT_NEGBIT(0, "ff", &opts.flags, N_("allow fast-forward"),
> >                          REBASE_FORCE),
> > -             OPT_BOOL(0, "keep-empty", &opts.keep_empty, N_("keep empty commits")),
> > +             { OPTION_CALLBACK, 'k', "keep-empty", &options, NULL,
> > +                     N_("(DEPRECATED) keep empty commits"),
> > +                     PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
> > +                     parse_opt_keep_empty },
> >               OPT_BOOL_F(0, "allow-empty-message", &opts.allow_empty_message,
> >                          N_("allow commits with empty messages"),
> >                          PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
> > @@ -1145,7 +1157,6 @@ static int run_specific_rebase(struct rebase_options *opts, enum action action)
> >               opts->allow_rerere_autoupdate ?
> >                       opts->allow_rerere_autoupdate == RERERE_AUTOUPDATE ?
> >                       "--rerere-autoupdate" : "--no-rerere-autoupdate" : "");
> > -     add_var(&script_snippet, "keep_empty", opts->keep_empty ? "yes" : "");
> >       add_var(&script_snippet, "autosquash", opts->autosquash ? "t" : "");
> >       add_var(&script_snippet, "gpg_sign_opt", opts->gpg_sign_opt);
> >       add_var(&script_snippet, "cmd", opts->cmd);
> > @@ -1483,8 +1494,10 @@ int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
> >                                "ignoring them"),
> >                             REBASE_PRESERVE_MERGES, PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
> >               OPT_RERERE_AUTOUPDATE(&options.allow_rerere_autoupdate),
> > -             OPT_BOOL('k', "keep-empty", &options.keep_empty,
> > -                      N_("preserve empty commits during rebase")),
> > +             { OPTION_CALLBACK, 'k', "keep-empty", &options, NULL,
> > +                     N_("(DEPRECATED) keep empty commits"),
> > +                     PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
> > +                     parse_opt_keep_empty },
> >               OPT_BOOL(0, "autosquash", &options.autosquash,
> >                        N_("move commits that begin with "
> >                           "squash!/fixup! under -i")),
> > @@ -1747,9 +1760,6 @@ int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
> >       if (!(options.flags & REBASE_NO_QUIET))
> >               argv_array_push(&options.git_am_opts, "-q");
> >
> > -     if (options.keep_empty)
> > -             imply_interactive(&options, "--keep-empty");
> > -
> >       if (gpg_sign) {
> >               free(options.gpg_sign_opt);
> >               options.gpg_sign_opt = xstrfmt("-S%s", gpg_sign);
> > diff --git a/rebase-interactive.c b/rebase-interactive.c
> > index aa18ae82b7..7e7b4061bf 100644
> > --- a/rebase-interactive.c
> > +++ b/rebase-interactive.c
> > @@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ static enum missing_commit_check_level get_missing_commit_check_level(void)
> >       return MISSING_COMMIT_CHECK_IGNORE;
> >   }
> >
> > -void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
> > +void append_todo_help(int command_count,
> >                     const char *shortrevisions, const char *shortonto,
> >                     struct strbuf *buf)
> >   {
> > @@ -80,11 +80,6 @@ void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
> >                       "the rebase will be aborted.\n\n");
> >
> >       strbuf_add_commented_lines(buf, msg, strlen(msg));
> > -
> > -     if (!keep_empty) {
> > -             msg = _("Note that empty commits are commented out");
> > -             strbuf_add_commented_lines(buf, msg, strlen(msg));
> > -     }
> >   }
> >
> >   int edit_todo_list(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
> > diff --git a/rebase-interactive.h b/rebase-interactive.h
> > index 44dbb06311..05354ca341 100644
> > --- a/rebase-interactive.h
> > +++ b/rebase-interactive.h
> > @@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ struct strbuf;
> >   struct repository;
> >   struct todo_list;
> >
> > -void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
> > +void append_todo_help(int command_count,
> >                     const char *shortrevisions, const char *shortonto,
> >                     struct strbuf *buf);
> >   int edit_todo_list(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
> > diff --git a/sequencer.c b/sequencer.c
> > index b9dbf1adb0..c21fc202b1 100644
> > --- a/sequencer.c
> > +++ b/sequencer.c
> > @@ -1489,7 +1489,7 @@ static int allow_empty(struct repository *r,
> >                      struct replay_opts *opts,
> >                      struct commit *commit)
> >   {
> > -     int index_unchanged, empty_commit;
> > +     int index_unchanged, originally_empty;
> >
> >       /*
> >        * Three cases:
> > @@ -1513,10 +1513,10 @@ static int allow_empty(struct repository *r,
> >       if (opts->keep_redundant_commits)
> >               return 1;
> >
> > -     empty_commit = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> > -     if (empty_commit < 0)
> > -             return empty_commit;
> > -     if (!empty_commit)
> > +     originally_empty = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> > +     if (originally_empty < 0)
> > +             return originally_empty;
> > +     if (!originally_empty)
> >               return 0;
> >       else
> >               return 1;
> > @@ -4566,7 +4566,6 @@ static int make_script_with_merges(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
> >                                  struct rev_info *revs, struct strbuf *out,
> >                                  unsigned flags)
> >   {
> > -     int keep_empty = flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY;
> >       int rebase_cousins = flags & TODO_LIST_REBASE_COUSINS;
> >       int root_with_onto = flags & TODO_LIST_ROOT_WITH_ONTO;
> >       struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT, oneline = STRBUF_INIT;
> > @@ -4629,8 +4628,6 @@ static int make_script_with_merges(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
> >               if (!to_merge) {
> >                       /* non-merge commit: easy case */
> >                       strbuf_reset(&buf);
> > -                     if (!keep_empty && is_empty)
> > -                             strbuf_addf(&buf, "%c ", comment_line_char);
> >                       strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s %s %s", cmd_pick,
> >                                   oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid),
> >                                   oneline.buf);
> > @@ -4797,7 +4794,6 @@ int sequencer_make_script(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *out, int argc,
> >       struct pretty_print_context pp = {0};
> >       struct rev_info revs;
> >       struct commit *commit;
> > -     int keep_empty = flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY;
> >       const char *insn = flags & TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS ? "p" : "pick";
> >       int rebase_merges = flags & TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES;
> >
> > @@ -4833,12 +4829,10 @@ int sequencer_make_script(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *out, int argc,
> >               return make_script_with_merges(&pp, &revs, out, flags);
> >
> >       while ((commit = get_revision(&revs))) {
> > -             int is_empty  = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> > +             int is_empty = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
> >
> >               if (!is_empty && (commit->object.flags & PATCHSAME))
> >                       continue;
> > -             if (!keep_empty && is_empty)
> > -                     strbuf_addf(out, "%c ", comment_line_char);
> >               strbuf_addf(out, "%s %s ", insn,
> >                           oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
> >               pretty_print_commit(&pp, commit, out);
> > @@ -4975,7 +4969,7 @@ int todo_list_write_to_file(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
> >
> >       todo_list_to_strbuf(r, todo_list, &buf, num, flags);
> >       if (flags & TODO_LIST_APPEND_TODO_HELP)
> > -             append_todo_help(flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY, count_commands(todo_list),
> > +             append_todo_help(count_commands(todo_list),
> >                                shortrevisions, shortonto, &buf);
> >
> >       res = write_message(buf.buf, buf.len, file, 0);
> > diff --git a/sequencer.h b/sequencer.h
> > index 9f9ae291e3..c165e0ff25 100644
> > --- a/sequencer.h
> > +++ b/sequencer.h
> > @@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ int sequencer_rollback(struct repository *repo, struct replay_opts *opts);
> >   int sequencer_skip(struct repository *repo, struct replay_opts *opts);
> >   int sequencer_remove_state(struct replay_opts *opts);
> >
> > -#define TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY (1U << 0)
> > +/* #define TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY (1U << 0) */ /* No longer used */
> >   #define TODO_LIST_SHORTEN_IDS (1U << 1)
> >   #define TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS (1U << 2)
> >   #define TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES (1U << 3)
> > diff --git a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
> > index 325072b0a3..57334dca7e 100755
> > --- a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
> > +++ b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
> > @@ -205,17 +205,17 @@ test_expect_success 'setup of linear history for empty commit tests' '
> >   test_run_rebase () {
> >       result=$1
> >       shift
> > -     test_expect_$result "rebase $* drops empty commit" "
> > +     test_expect_$result "rebase $* keeps begin-empty commits" "
> >               reset_rebase &&
> > -             git rebase $* c l &&
> > -             test_cmp_rev c HEAD~2 &&
> > -             test_linear_range 'd l' c..
> > +             git rebase $* j l &&
> > +             test_cmp_rev c HEAD~4 &&
> > +             test_linear_range 'j d k l' c..
> >       "
> >   }
> > -test_run_rebase success ''
> > +test_run_rebase failure ''
> >   test_run_rebase success -m
> >   test_run_rebase success -i
> > -test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
> > +test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
> >
> >   test_run_rebase () {
> >       result=$1
> > @@ -230,7 +230,7 @@ test_run_rebase () {
> >   test_run_rebase success ''
> >   test_run_rebase success -m
> >   test_run_rebase success -i
> > -test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
> > +test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
> >
> >   test_run_rebase () {
> >       result=$1
> > @@ -245,7 +245,7 @@ test_run_rebase () {
> >   test_run_rebase success ''
> >   test_run_rebase success -m
> >   test_run_rebase success -i
> > -test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
> > +test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
> >   test_run_rebase success --rebase-merges
> >
> >   #       m
> > diff --git a/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh b/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
> > new file mode 100755
> > index 0000000000..22d97e143b
> > --- /dev/null
> > +++ b/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
> > @@ -0,0 +1,72 @@
> > +#!/bin/sh
> > +
> > +test_description='git rebase of commits that start or become empty'
> > +
> > +. ./test-lib.sh
> > +
> > +test_expect_success 'setup test repository' '
> > +     test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >numbers &&
> > +     test_write_lines A B C D E F G H I J >letters &&
> > +     git add numbers letters &&
> > +     git commit -m A &&
> > +
> > +     git branch upstream &&
> > +     git branch localmods &&
> > +
> > +     git checkout upstream &&
> > +     test_write_lines A B C D E >letters &&
> > +     git add letters &&
> > +     git commit -m B &&
> > +
> > +     test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 five 6 7 8 9 ten >numbers &&
> > +     git add numbers &&
> > +     git commit -m C &&
> > +
> > +     git checkout localmods &&
> > +     test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 five 6 7 8 9 10 >numbers &&
> > +     git add numbers &&
> > +     git commit -m C2 &&
> > +
> > +     git commit --allow-empty -m D &&
> > +
> > +     test_write_lines A B C D E >letters &&
> > +     git add letters &&
> > +     git commit -m "Five letters ought to be enough for anybody"
> > +'
> > +
> > +test_expect_failure 'rebase (am-backend) with a variety of empty commits' '
> > +     test_when_finished "git rebase --abort" &&
> > +     git checkout -B testing localmods &&
> > +     # rebase (--am) should not drop commits that start empty
> > +     git rebase upstream &&
> > +
> > +     test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
> > +     git log --format=%s >actual &&
> > +     test_cmp expect actual
> > +'
> > +
> > +test_expect_failure 'rebase --merge with a variety of empty commits' '
> > +     test_when_finished "git rebase --abort" &&
> > +     git checkout -B testing localmods &&
> > +     # rebase --merge should not halt on the commit that becomes empty
> > +     git rebase --merge upstream &&
> > +
> > +     test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
> > +     git log --format=%s >actual &&
> > +     test_cmp expect actual
> > +'
> > +
> > +GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR=: && export GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR
>
> This doesn't do any harm but I'm not sure it's needed

Indeed, good catch.  I'll remove it.


Thanks for digging in and providing feedback!


Elijah

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index c83be7ffc2..1d19542d79 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -259,10 +259,13 @@  See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 	unchanged as a result.
 
 --keep-empty::
-	Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
-	parents in the result.
+	No-op.  Rebasing commits that started empty (had no change
+	relative to their parent) used to fail and this option would
+	override that behavior, allowing commits with empty changes to
+	be rebased.  Now commits with no changes do not cause rebasing
+	to halt.
 +
-See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
+See also BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --allow-empty-message::
 	No-op.  Rebasing commits with an empty message used to fail
@@ -577,15 +580,14 @@  There are some subtle differences how the backends behave.
 Empty commits
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-The am backend drops any "empty" commits, regardless of whether the
-commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
-start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
-upstream in other commits).
+The am backend unfortunately drops intentionally empty commits, i.e.
+commits that started empty, though these are rare in practice.  It
+also drops commits that become empty and has no option for controlling
+this behavior.
 
-The interactive backend drops commits by default that
-started empty and halts if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
-The `--keep-empty` option exists for the interactive backend to allow
-it to keep commits that started empty.
+The interactive backend keeps intentionally empty commits.
+Unfortunately, it always halts whenever it runs across a commit that
+becomes empty, even when the rebase is not explicitly interactive.
 
 Directory rename detection
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
diff --git a/builtin/rebase.c b/builtin/rebase.c
index faa4e0d406..537b3241ce 100644
--- a/builtin/rebase.c
+++ b/builtin/rebase.c
@@ -77,7 +77,6 @@  struct rebase_options {
 	const char *action;
 	int signoff;
 	int allow_rerere_autoupdate;
-	int keep_empty;
 	int autosquash;
 	char *gpg_sign_opt;
 	int autostash;
@@ -375,7 +374,6 @@  static int run_rebase_interactive(struct rebase_options *opts,
 
 	git_config_get_bool("rebase.abbreviatecommands", &abbreviate_commands);
 
-	flags |= opts->keep_empty ? TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY : 0;
 	flags |= abbreviate_commands ? TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS : 0;
 	flags |= opts->rebase_merges ? TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES : 0;
 	flags |= opts->rebase_cousins > 0 ? TODO_LIST_REBASE_COUSINS : 0;
@@ -439,6 +437,17 @@  static int run_rebase_interactive(struct rebase_options *opts,
 	return ret;
 }
 
+static int parse_opt_keep_empty(const struct option *opt, const char *arg,
+				int unset)
+{
+	struct rebase_options *opts = opt->value;
+
+	BUG_ON_OPT_ARG(arg);
+
+	opts->type = REBASE_INTERACTIVE;
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static const char * const builtin_rebase_interactive_usage[] = {
 	N_("git rebase--interactive [<options>]"),
 	NULL
@@ -452,7 +461,10 @@  int cmd_rebase__interactive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_NEGBIT(0, "ff", &opts.flags, N_("allow fast-forward"),
 			   REBASE_FORCE),
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "keep-empty", &opts.keep_empty, N_("keep empty commits")),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'k', "keep-empty", &options, NULL,
+			N_("(DEPRECATED) keep empty commits"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
+			parse_opt_keep_empty },
 		OPT_BOOL_F(0, "allow-empty-message", &opts.allow_empty_message,
 			   N_("allow commits with empty messages"),
 			   PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
@@ -1145,7 +1157,6 @@  static int run_specific_rebase(struct rebase_options *opts, enum action action)
 		opts->allow_rerere_autoupdate ?
 			opts->allow_rerere_autoupdate == RERERE_AUTOUPDATE ?
 			"--rerere-autoupdate" : "--no-rerere-autoupdate" : "");
-	add_var(&script_snippet, "keep_empty", opts->keep_empty ? "yes" : "");
 	add_var(&script_snippet, "autosquash", opts->autosquash ? "t" : "");
 	add_var(&script_snippet, "gpg_sign_opt", opts->gpg_sign_opt);
 	add_var(&script_snippet, "cmd", opts->cmd);
@@ -1483,8 +1494,10 @@  int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 				 "ignoring them"),
 			      REBASE_PRESERVE_MERGES, PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
 		OPT_RERERE_AUTOUPDATE(&options.allow_rerere_autoupdate),
-		OPT_BOOL('k', "keep-empty", &options.keep_empty,
-			 N_("preserve empty commits during rebase")),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'k', "keep-empty", &options, NULL,
+			N_("(DEPRECATED) keep empty commits"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
+			parse_opt_keep_empty },
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "autosquash", &options.autosquash,
 			 N_("move commits that begin with "
 			    "squash!/fixup! under -i")),
@@ -1747,9 +1760,6 @@  int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 	if (!(options.flags & REBASE_NO_QUIET))
 		argv_array_push(&options.git_am_opts, "-q");
 
-	if (options.keep_empty)
-		imply_interactive(&options, "--keep-empty");
-
 	if (gpg_sign) {
 		free(options.gpg_sign_opt);
 		options.gpg_sign_opt = xstrfmt("-S%s", gpg_sign);
diff --git a/rebase-interactive.c b/rebase-interactive.c
index aa18ae82b7..7e7b4061bf 100644
--- a/rebase-interactive.c
+++ b/rebase-interactive.c
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@  static enum missing_commit_check_level get_missing_commit_check_level(void)
 	return MISSING_COMMIT_CHECK_IGNORE;
 }
 
-void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
+void append_todo_help(int command_count,
 		      const char *shortrevisions, const char *shortonto,
 		      struct strbuf *buf)
 {
@@ -80,11 +80,6 @@  void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
 			"the rebase will be aborted.\n\n");
 
 	strbuf_add_commented_lines(buf, msg, strlen(msg));
-
-	if (!keep_empty) {
-		msg = _("Note that empty commits are commented out");
-		strbuf_add_commented_lines(buf, msg, strlen(msg));
-	}
 }
 
 int edit_todo_list(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
diff --git a/rebase-interactive.h b/rebase-interactive.h
index 44dbb06311..05354ca341 100644
--- a/rebase-interactive.h
+++ b/rebase-interactive.h
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@  struct strbuf;
 struct repository;
 struct todo_list;
 
-void append_todo_help(unsigned keep_empty, int command_count,
+void append_todo_help(int command_count,
 		      const char *shortrevisions, const char *shortonto,
 		      struct strbuf *buf);
 int edit_todo_list(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
diff --git a/sequencer.c b/sequencer.c
index b9dbf1adb0..c21fc202b1 100644
--- a/sequencer.c
+++ b/sequencer.c
@@ -1489,7 +1489,7 @@  static int allow_empty(struct repository *r,
 		       struct replay_opts *opts,
 		       struct commit *commit)
 {
-	int index_unchanged, empty_commit;
+	int index_unchanged, originally_empty;
 
 	/*
 	 * Three cases:
@@ -1513,10 +1513,10 @@  static int allow_empty(struct repository *r,
 	if (opts->keep_redundant_commits)
 		return 1;
 
-	empty_commit = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
-	if (empty_commit < 0)
-		return empty_commit;
-	if (!empty_commit)
+	originally_empty = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
+	if (originally_empty < 0)
+		return originally_empty;
+	if (!originally_empty)
 		return 0;
 	else
 		return 1;
@@ -4566,7 +4566,6 @@  static int make_script_with_merges(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
 				   struct rev_info *revs, struct strbuf *out,
 				   unsigned flags)
 {
-	int keep_empty = flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY;
 	int rebase_cousins = flags & TODO_LIST_REBASE_COUSINS;
 	int root_with_onto = flags & TODO_LIST_ROOT_WITH_ONTO;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT, oneline = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -4629,8 +4628,6 @@  static int make_script_with_merges(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
 		if (!to_merge) {
 			/* non-merge commit: easy case */
 			strbuf_reset(&buf);
-			if (!keep_empty && is_empty)
-				strbuf_addf(&buf, "%c ", comment_line_char);
 			strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s %s %s", cmd_pick,
 				    oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid),
 				    oneline.buf);
@@ -4797,7 +4794,6 @@  int sequencer_make_script(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *out, int argc,
 	struct pretty_print_context pp = {0};
 	struct rev_info revs;
 	struct commit *commit;
-	int keep_empty = flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY;
 	const char *insn = flags & TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS ? "p" : "pick";
 	int rebase_merges = flags & TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES;
 
@@ -4833,12 +4829,10 @@  int sequencer_make_script(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *out, int argc,
 		return make_script_with_merges(&pp, &revs, out, flags);
 
 	while ((commit = get_revision(&revs))) {
-		int is_empty  = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
+		int is_empty = is_original_commit_empty(commit);
 
 		if (!is_empty && (commit->object.flags & PATCHSAME))
 			continue;
-		if (!keep_empty && is_empty)
-			strbuf_addf(out, "%c ", comment_line_char);
 		strbuf_addf(out, "%s %s ", insn,
 			    oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 		pretty_print_commit(&pp, commit, out);
@@ -4975,7 +4969,7 @@  int todo_list_write_to_file(struct repository *r, struct todo_list *todo_list,
 
 	todo_list_to_strbuf(r, todo_list, &buf, num, flags);
 	if (flags & TODO_LIST_APPEND_TODO_HELP)
-		append_todo_help(flags & TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY, count_commands(todo_list),
+		append_todo_help(count_commands(todo_list),
 				 shortrevisions, shortonto, &buf);
 
 	res = write_message(buf.buf, buf.len, file, 0);
diff --git a/sequencer.h b/sequencer.h
index 9f9ae291e3..c165e0ff25 100644
--- a/sequencer.h
+++ b/sequencer.h
@@ -132,7 +132,7 @@  int sequencer_rollback(struct repository *repo, struct replay_opts *opts);
 int sequencer_skip(struct repository *repo, struct replay_opts *opts);
 int sequencer_remove_state(struct replay_opts *opts);
 
-#define TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY (1U << 0)
+/* #define TODO_LIST_KEEP_EMPTY (1U << 0) */ /* No longer used */
 #define TODO_LIST_SHORTEN_IDS (1U << 1)
 #define TODO_LIST_ABBREVIATE_CMDS (1U << 2)
 #define TODO_LIST_REBASE_MERGES (1U << 3)
diff --git a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
index 325072b0a3..57334dca7e 100755
--- a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
+++ b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
@@ -205,17 +205,17 @@  test_expect_success 'setup of linear history for empty commit tests' '
 test_run_rebase () {
 	result=$1
 	shift
-	test_expect_$result "rebase $* drops empty commit" "
+	test_expect_$result "rebase $* keeps begin-empty commits" "
 		reset_rebase &&
-		git rebase $* c l &&
-		test_cmp_rev c HEAD~2 &&
-		test_linear_range 'd l' c..
+		git rebase $* j l &&
+		test_cmp_rev c HEAD~4 &&
+		test_linear_range 'j d k l' c..
 	"
 }
-test_run_rebase success ''
+test_run_rebase failure ''
 test_run_rebase success -m
 test_run_rebase success -i
-test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
+test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
 
 test_run_rebase () {
 	result=$1
@@ -230,7 +230,7 @@  test_run_rebase () {
 test_run_rebase success ''
 test_run_rebase success -m
 test_run_rebase success -i
-test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
+test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
 
 test_run_rebase () {
 	result=$1
@@ -245,7 +245,7 @@  test_run_rebase () {
 test_run_rebase success ''
 test_run_rebase success -m
 test_run_rebase success -i
-test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase failure -p
+test_have_prereq !REBASE_P || test_run_rebase success -p
 test_run_rebase success --rebase-merges
 
 #       m
diff --git a/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh b/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000000..22d97e143b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t3424-rebase-empty.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,72 @@ 
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='git rebase of commits that start or become empty'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+
+test_expect_success 'setup test repository' '
+	test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >numbers &&
+	test_write_lines A B C D E F G H I J >letters &&
+	git add numbers letters &&
+	git commit -m A &&
+
+	git branch upstream &&
+	git branch localmods &&
+
+	git checkout upstream &&
+	test_write_lines A B C D E >letters &&
+	git add letters &&
+	git commit -m B &&
+
+	test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 five 6 7 8 9 ten >numbers &&
+	git add numbers &&
+	git commit -m C &&
+
+	git checkout localmods &&
+	test_write_lines 1 2 3 4 five 6 7 8 9 10 >numbers &&
+	git add numbers &&
+	git commit -m C2 &&
+
+	git commit --allow-empty -m D &&
+
+	test_write_lines A B C D E >letters &&
+	git add letters &&
+	git commit -m "Five letters ought to be enough for anybody"
+'
+
+test_expect_failure 'rebase (am-backend) with a variety of empty commits' '
+	test_when_finished "git rebase --abort" &&
+	git checkout -B testing localmods &&
+	# rebase (--am) should not drop commits that start empty
+	git rebase upstream &&
+
+	test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
+	git log --format=%s >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_failure 'rebase --merge with a variety of empty commits' '
+	test_when_finished "git rebase --abort" &&
+	git checkout -B testing localmods &&
+	# rebase --merge should not halt on the commit that becomes empty
+	git rebase --merge upstream &&
+
+	test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
+	git log --format=%s >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR=: && export GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR
+
+test_expect_success 'rebase --interactive with a variety of empty commits' '
+	git checkout -B testing localmods &&
+	test_must_fail git rebase --interactive upstream &&
+
+	git rebase --skip &&
+
+	test_write_lines D C B A >expect &&
+	git log --format=%s >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh b/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh
index bec48e6a1f..8dceef61cf 100755
--- a/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh
+++ b/t/t3427-rebase-subtree.sh
@@ -85,23 +85,23 @@  test_expect_failure REBASE_P 'Rebase -Xsubtree --keep-empty --preserve-merges --
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD)" = "Empty commit"
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --keep-empty --onto commit' '
+test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --onto commit' '
 	reset_rebase &&
 	git checkout -b rebase-onto to-rebase &&
-	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --keep-empty --onto files-master master &&
+	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --onto files-master master &&
 	: first pick results in no changes &&
-	git rebase --continue &&
+	git rebase --skip &&
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~2)" = "master4" &&
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~)" = "files_subtree/master5" &&
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD)" = "Empty commit"
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --keep-empty --rebase-merges --onto commit' '
+test_expect_success 'Rebase -Xsubtree --rebase-merges --onto commit' '
 	reset_rebase &&
 	git checkout -b rebase-merges-onto to-rebase &&
-	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --keep-empty --rebase-merges --onto files-master --root &&
+	test_must_fail git rebase -Xsubtree=files_subtree --rebase-merges --onto files-master --root &&
 	: first pick results in no changes &&
-	git rebase --continue &&
+	git rebase --skip &&
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~2)" = "master4" &&
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD~)" = "files_subtree/master5" &&
 	verbose test "$(commit_message HEAD)" = "Empty commit"