[v4,08/12] mm/gup: page->hpage_pinned_refcount: exact pin counts for huge pages
diff mbox series

Message ID 20200204234117.2974687-9-jhubbard@nvidia.com
State New
Headers show
Series
  • mm/gup: track FOLL_PIN pages
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Commit Message

John Hubbard Feb. 4, 2020, 11:41 p.m. UTC
For huge pages (and in fact, any compound page), the
GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS scheme tends to overflow too easily, each tail
page increments the head page->_refcount by GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS
(1024). That limits the number of huge pages that can be pinned.

This patch removes that limitation, by using an exact form of pin
counting for compound pages of order > 1. The "order > 1" is required
because this approach uses the 3rd struct page in the compound page, and
order 1 compound pages only have two pages, so that won't work there.

A new struct page field, hpage_pinned_refcount, has been added,
replacing a padding field in the union (so no new space is used).

This enhancement also has a useful side effect: huge pages and compound
pages (of order > 1) do not suffer from the "potential false positives"
problem that is discussed in the page_dma_pinned() comment block. That
is because these compound pages have extra space for tracking things, so
they get exact pin counts instead of overloading page->_refcount.

Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst is updated accordingly.

Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>
Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Suggested-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
Signed-off-by: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
---
 Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst | 40 +++++-------
 include/linux/mm.h                        | 26 ++++++++
 include/linux/mm_types.h                  |  7 +-
 mm/gup.c                                  | 78 ++++++++++++++++++++---
 mm/hugetlb.c                              |  6 ++
 mm/page_alloc.c                           |  2 +
 mm/rmap.c                                 |  6 ++
 7 files changed, 133 insertions(+), 32 deletions(-)

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst b/Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst
index 9829345428f8..3f72b1ea1104 100644
--- a/Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst
+++ b/Documentation/core-api/pin_user_pages.rst
@@ -52,8 +52,22 @@  Which flags are set by each wrapper
 
 For these pin_user_pages*() functions, FOLL_PIN is OR'd in with whatever gup
 flags the caller provides. The caller is required to pass in a non-null struct
-pages* array, and the function then pin pages by incrementing each by a special
-value. For now, that value is +1, just like get_user_pages*().::
+pages* array, and the function then pins pages by incrementing each by a special
+value: GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS.
+
+For huge pages (and in fact, any compound page of more than 2 pages), the
+GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS scheme is not used. Instead, an exact form of pin counting
+is achieved, by using the 3rd struct page in the compound page. A new struct
+page field, hpage_pinned_refcount, has been added in order to support this.
+
+This approach for compound pages avoids the counting upper limit problems that
+are discussed below. Those limitations would have been aggravated severely by
+huge pages, because each tail page adds a refcount to the head page. And in
+fact, testing revealed that, without a separate hpage_pinned_refcount field,
+page overflows were seen in some huge page stress tests.
+
+This also means that huge pages and compound pages (of order > 1) do not suffer
+from the false positives problem that is mentioned below.::
 
  Function
  --------
@@ -99,27 +113,6 @@  pages:
 This also leads to limitations: there are only 31-10==21 bits available for a
 counter that increments 10 bits at a time.
 
-TODO: for 1GB and larger huge pages, this is cutting it close. That's because
-when pin_user_pages() follows such pages, it increments the head page by "1"
-(where "1" used to mean "+1" for get_user_pages(), but now means "+1024" for
-pin_user_pages()) for each tail page. So if you have a 1GB huge page:
-
-* There are 256K (18 bits) worth of 4 KB tail pages.
-* There are 21 bits available to count up via GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS (that is,
-  10 bits at a time)
-* There are 21 - 18 == 3 bits available to count. Except that there aren't,
-  because you need to allow for a few normal get_page() calls on the head page,
-  as well. Fortunately, the approach of using addition, rather than "hard"
-  bitfields, within page->_refcount, allows for sharing these bits gracefully.
-  But we're still looking at about 8 references.
-
-This, however, is a missing feature more than anything else, because it's easily
-solved by addressing an obvious inefficiency in the original get_user_pages()
-approach of retrieving pages: stop treating all the pages as if they were
-PAGE_SIZE. Retrieve huge pages as huge pages. The callers need to be aware of
-this, so some work is required. Once that's in place, this limitation mostly
-disappears from view, because there will be ample refcounting range available.
-
 * Callers must specifically request "dma-pinned tracking of pages". In other
   words, just calling get_user_pages() will not suffice; a new set of functions,
   pin_user_page() and related, must be used.
@@ -228,5 +221,6 @@  References
 * `Some slow progress on get_user_pages() (Apr 2, 2019) <https://lwn.net/Articles/784574/>`_
 * `DMA and get_user_pages() (LPC: Dec 12, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/774411/>`_
 * `The trouble with get_user_pages() (Apr 30, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/753027/>`_
+* `LWN kernel index: get_user_pages() <https://lwn.net/Kernel/Index/#Memory_management-get_user_pages>`
 
 John Hubbard, October, 2019
diff --git a/include/linux/mm.h b/include/linux/mm.h
index 8d4f9f4094f4..2f9ca976402b 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm.h
@@ -770,6 +770,24 @@  static inline unsigned int compound_order(struct page *page)
 	return page[1].compound_order;
 }
 
+static inline bool hpage_pincount_available(struct page *page)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Can the page->hpage_pinned_refcount field be used? That field is in
+	 * the 3rd page of the compound page, so the smallest (2-page) compound
+	 * pages cannot support it.
+	 */
+	page = compound_head(page);
+	return PageCompound(page) && compound_order(page) > 1;
+}
+
+static inline int compound_pincount(struct page *page)
+{
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!hpage_pincount_available(page), page);
+	page = compound_head(page);
+	return atomic_read(compound_pincount_ptr(page));
+}
+
 static inline void set_compound_order(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
 {
 	page[1].compound_order = order;
@@ -1084,6 +1102,11 @@  void unpin_user_pages(struct page **pages, unsigned long npages);
  * refcounts, and b) all the callers of this routine are expected to be able to
  * deal gracefully with a false positive.
  *
+ * For huge pages, the result will be exactly correct. That's because we have
+ * more tracking data available: the 3rd struct page in the compound page is
+ * used to track the pincount (instead using of the GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS
+ * scheme).
+ *
  * For more information, please see Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst.
  *
  * @page:	pointer to page to be queried.
@@ -1092,6 +1115,9 @@  void unpin_user_pages(struct page **pages, unsigned long npages);
  */
 static inline bool page_maybe_dma_pinned(struct page *page)
 {
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		return compound_pincount(page) > 0;
+
 	/*
 	 * page_ref_count() is signed. If that refcount overflows, then
 	 * page_ref_count() returns a negative value, and callers will avoid
diff --git a/include/linux/mm_types.h b/include/linux/mm_types.h
index c28911c3afa8..dd555e6d23f3 100644
--- a/include/linux/mm_types.h
+++ b/include/linux/mm_types.h
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@  struct page {
 		};
 		struct {	/* Second tail page of compound page */
 			unsigned long _compound_pad_1;	/* compound_head */
-			unsigned long _compound_pad_2;
+			atomic_t hpage_pinned_refcount;
 			/* For both global and memcg */
 			struct list_head deferred_list;
 		};
@@ -226,6 +226,11 @@  static inline atomic_t *compound_mapcount_ptr(struct page *page)
 	return &page[1].compound_mapcount;
 }
 
+static inline atomic_t *compound_pincount_ptr(struct page *page)
+{
+	return &page[2].hpage_pinned_refcount;
+}
+
 /*
  * Used for sizing the vmemmap region on some architectures
  */
diff --git a/mm/gup.c b/mm/gup.c
index a2356482e1ea..4d0d94405639 100644
--- a/mm/gup.c
+++ b/mm/gup.c
@@ -29,6 +29,22 @@  struct follow_page_context {
 	unsigned int page_mask;
 };
 
+static void hpage_pincount_add(struct page *page, int refs)
+{
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!hpage_pincount_available(page), page);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page != compound_head(page), page);
+
+	atomic_add(refs, compound_pincount_ptr(page));
+}
+
+static void hpage_pincount_sub(struct page *page, int refs)
+{
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!hpage_pincount_available(page), page);
+	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page != compound_head(page), page);
+
+	atomic_sub(refs, compound_pincount_ptr(page));
+}
+
 /*
  * Return the compound head page with ref appropriately incremented,
  * or NULL if that failed.
@@ -70,8 +86,25 @@  static __maybe_unused struct page *try_grab_compound_head(struct page *page,
 	if (flags & FOLL_GET)
 		return try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
 	else if (flags & FOLL_PIN) {
-		refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
-		return try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
+		/*
+		 * When pinning a compound page of order > 1 (which is what
+		 * hpage_pincount_available() checks for), use an exact count to
+		 * track it, via hpage_pincount_add/_sub().
+		 *
+		 * However, be sure to *also* increment the normal page refcount
+		 * field at least once, so that the page really is pinned.
+		 */
+		if (!hpage_pincount_available(page))
+			refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
+
+		page = try_get_compound_head(page, refs);
+		if (!page)
+			return NULL;
+
+		if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+			hpage_pincount_add(page, refs);
+
+		return page;
 	}
 
 	WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
@@ -106,12 +139,25 @@  bool __must_check try_grab_page(struct page *page, unsigned int flags)
 	if (flags & FOLL_GET)
 		return try_get_page(page);
 	else if (flags & FOLL_PIN) {
+		int refs = 1;
+
 		page = compound_head(page);
 
 		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(page_ref_count(page) <= 0))
 			return false;
 
-		page_ref_add(page, GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS);
+		if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+			hpage_pincount_add(page, 1);
+		else
+			refs = GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
+
+		/*
+		 * Similar to try_grab_compound_head(): even if using the
+		 * hpage_pincount_add/_sub() routines, be sure to
+		 * *also* increment the normal page refcount field at least
+		 * once, so that the page really is pinned.
+		 */
+		page_ref_add(page, refs);
 	}
 
 	return true;
@@ -120,12 +166,17 @@  bool __must_check try_grab_page(struct page *page, unsigned int flags)
 #ifdef CONFIG_DEV_PAGEMAP_OPS
 static bool __unpin_devmap_managed_user_page(struct page *page)
 {
-	int count;
+	int count, refs = 1;
 
 	if (!page_is_devmap_managed(page))
 		return false;
 
-	count = page_ref_sub_return(page, GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS);
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		hpage_pincount_sub(page, 1);
+	else
+		refs = GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
+
+	count = page_ref_sub_return(page, refs);
 
 	/*
 	 * devmap page refcounts are 1-based, rather than 0-based: if
@@ -157,6 +208,8 @@  static bool __unpin_devmap_managed_user_page(struct page *page)
  */
 void unpin_user_page(struct page *page)
 {
+	int refs = 1;
+
 	page = compound_head(page);
 
 	/*
@@ -168,7 +221,12 @@  void unpin_user_page(struct page *page)
 	if (__unpin_devmap_managed_user_page(page))
 		return;
 
-	if (page_ref_sub_and_test(page, GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS))
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		hpage_pincount_sub(page, 1);
+	else
+		refs = GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
+
+	if (page_ref_sub_and_test(page, refs))
 		__put_page(page);
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(unpin_user_page);
@@ -2200,8 +2258,12 @@  static int record_subpages(struct page *page, unsigned long addr,
 
 static void put_compound_head(struct page *page, int refs, unsigned int flags)
 {
-	if (flags & FOLL_PIN)
-		refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
+	if (flags & FOLL_PIN) {
+		if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+			hpage_pincount_sub(page, refs);
+		else
+			refs *= GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS;
+	}
 
 	VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(page_ref_count(page) < refs, page);
 	/*
diff --git a/mm/hugetlb.c b/mm/hugetlb.c
index ba1de6bc1402..3d31a235b53d 100644
--- a/mm/hugetlb.c
+++ b/mm/hugetlb.c
@@ -1009,6 +1009,9 @@  static void destroy_compound_gigantic_page(struct page *page,
 	struct page *p = page + 1;
 
 	atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
+
 	for (i = 1; i < nr_pages; i++, p = mem_map_next(p, page, i)) {
 		clear_compound_head(p);
 		set_page_refcounted(p);
@@ -1287,6 +1290,9 @@  static void prep_compound_gigantic_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
 		set_compound_head(p, page);
 	}
 	atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), -1);
+
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/mm/page_alloc.c b/mm/page_alloc.c
index 3c4eb750a199..b2fe61035b7a 100644
--- a/mm/page_alloc.c
+++ b/mm/page_alloc.c
@@ -689,6 +689,8 @@  void prep_compound_page(struct page *page, unsigned int order)
 		set_compound_head(p, page);
 	}
 	atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), -1);
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
 }
 
 #ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC
diff --git a/mm/rmap.c b/mm/rmap.c
index b3e381919835..e45b9b991e2f 100644
--- a/mm/rmap.c
+++ b/mm/rmap.c
@@ -1178,6 +1178,9 @@  void page_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
 		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(!PageTransHuge(page), page);
 		/* increment count (starts at -1) */
 		atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
+		if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+			atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
+
 		__inc_node_page_state(page, NR_ANON_THPS);
 	} else {
 		/* Anon THP always mapped first with PMD */
@@ -1974,6 +1977,9 @@  void hugepage_add_new_anon_rmap(struct page *page,
 {
 	BUG_ON(address < vma->vm_start || address >= vma->vm_end);
 	atomic_set(compound_mapcount_ptr(page), 0);
+	if (hpage_pincount_available(page))
+		atomic_set(compound_pincount_ptr(page), 0);
+
 	__page_set_anon_rmap(page, vma, address, 1);
 }
 #endif /* CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE */