[v2,2/4] hw/block/nvme: support multiple namespaces
diff mbox series

Message ID 20200629214825.1283673-3-its@irrelevant.dk
State New
Headers show
Series
  • hw/block/nvme: support multiple namespaces
Related show

Commit Message

Klaus Jensen June 29, 2020, 9:48 p.m. UTC
From: Klaus Jensen <k.jensen@samsung.com>

This adds support for multiple namespaces by introducing a new 'nvme-ns'
device model. The nvme device creates a bus named from the device name
('id'). The nvme-ns devices then connect to this and registers
themselves with the nvme device.

This changes how an nvme device is created. Example with two namespaces:

  -drive file=nvme0n1.img,if=none,id=disk1
  -drive file=nvme0n2.img,if=none,id=disk2
  -device nvme,serial=deadbeef,id=nvme0
  -device nvme-ns,drive=disk1,bus=nvme0,nsid=1
  -device nvme-ns,drive=disk2,bus=nvme0,nsid=2

The drive property is kept on the nvme device to keep the change
backward compatible, but the property is now optional. Specifying a
drive for the nvme device will always create the namespace with nsid 1.

Signed-off-by: Klaus Jensen <klaus.jensen@cnexlabs.com>
Signed-off-by: Klaus Jensen <k.jensen@samsung.com>
Reviewed-by: Keith Busch <kbusch@kernel.org>
---
 hw/block/Makefile.objs |   2 +-
 hw/block/nvme-ns.c     | 172 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 hw/block/nvme-ns.h     |  66 +++++++++++
 hw/block/nvme.c        | 255 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++---------------
 hw/block/nvme.h        |  44 +++----
 hw/block/trace-events  |   8 +-
 6 files changed, 431 insertions(+), 116 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 hw/block/nvme-ns.c
 create mode 100644 hw/block/nvme-ns.h

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/hw/block/Makefile.objs b/hw/block/Makefile.objs
index 8855c2265639..8c159bc56630 100644
--- a/hw/block/Makefile.objs
+++ b/hw/block/Makefile.objs
@@ -13,6 +13,6 @@  common-obj-$(CONFIG_SH4) += tc58128.o
 
 obj-$(CONFIG_VIRTIO_BLK) += virtio-blk.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_VHOST_USER_BLK) += vhost-user-blk.o
-common-obj-$(CONFIG_NVME_PCI) += nvme.o
+common-obj-$(CONFIG_NVME_PCI) += nvme.o nvme-ns.o
 
 obj-y += dataplane/
diff --git a/hw/block/nvme-ns.c b/hw/block/nvme-ns.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..28ce5e011568
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hw/block/nvme-ns.c
@@ -0,0 +1,172 @@ 
+/*
+ * QEMU NVM Express Virtual Namespace
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2019 CNEX Labs
+ * Copyright (c) 2020 Samsung Electronics
+ *
+ * Authors:
+ *  Klaus Jensen      <k.jensen@samsung.com>
+ *
+ * This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2. See the
+ * COPYING file in the top-level directory.
+ *
+ */
+
+#include "qemu/osdep.h"
+#include "qemu/units.h"
+#include "qemu/cutils.h"
+#include "qemu/log.h"
+#include "hw/block/block.h"
+#include "hw/pci/pci.h"
+#include "sysemu/sysemu.h"
+#include "sysemu/block-backend.h"
+#include "qapi/error.h"
+
+#include "hw/qdev-properties.h"
+#include "hw/qdev-core.h"
+
+#include "nvme.h"
+#include "nvme-ns.h"
+
+static void nvme_ns_init(NvmeNamespace *ns)
+{
+    NvmeIdNs *id_ns = &ns->id_ns;
+
+    id_ns->lbaf[0].ds = BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
+
+    id_ns->nsze = cpu_to_le64(nvme_ns_nlbas(ns));
+
+    /* no thin provisioning */
+    id_ns->ncap = id_ns->nsze;
+    id_ns->nuse = id_ns->ncap;
+}
+
+static int nvme_ns_init_blk(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns, NvmeIdCtrl *id,
+                            Error **errp)
+{
+    uint64_t perm, shared_perm;
+
+    Error *local_err = NULL;
+    int ret;
+
+    perm = BLK_PERM_CONSISTENT_READ | BLK_PERM_WRITE;
+    shared_perm = BLK_PERM_CONSISTENT_READ | BLK_PERM_WRITE_UNCHANGED |
+        BLK_PERM_GRAPH_MOD;
+
+    ret = blk_set_perm(ns->blk, perm, shared_perm, &local_err);
+    if (ret) {
+        error_propagate_prepend(errp, local_err,
+                                "could not set block permissions: ");
+        return ret;
+    }
+
+    ns->size = blk_getlength(ns->blk);
+    if (ns->size < 0) {
+        error_setg_errno(errp, -ns->size, "could not get blockdev size");
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    switch (n->conf.wce) {
+    case ON_OFF_AUTO_ON:
+        n->features.vwc = 1;
+        break;
+    case ON_OFF_AUTO_OFF:
+        n->features.vwc = 0;
+        break;
+    case ON_OFF_AUTO_AUTO:
+        n->features.vwc = blk_enable_write_cache(ns->blk);
+        break;
+    default:
+        abort();
+    }
+
+    blk_set_enable_write_cache(ns->blk, n->features.vwc);
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static int nvme_ns_check_constraints(NvmeNamespace *ns, Error **errp)
+{
+    if (!ns->blk) {
+        error_setg(errp, "block backend not configured");
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+int nvme_ns_setup(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns, Error **errp)
+{
+    if (nvme_ns_check_constraints(ns, errp)) {
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    if (nvme_ns_init_blk(n, ns, &n->id_ctrl, errp)) {
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    nvme_ns_init(ns);
+    if (nvme_register_namespace(n, ns, errp)) {
+        return -1;
+    }
+
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static void nvme_ns_realize(DeviceState *dev, Error **errp)
+{
+    NvmeNamespace *ns = NVME_NS(dev);
+    BusState *s = qdev_get_parent_bus(dev);
+    NvmeCtrl *n = NVME(s->parent);
+    Error *local_err = NULL;
+
+    if (nvme_ns_setup(n, ns, &local_err)) {
+        error_propagate_prepend(errp, local_err,
+                                "could not setup namespace: ");
+        return;
+    }
+}
+
+static Property nvme_ns_props[] = {
+    DEFINE_PROP_DRIVE("drive", NvmeNamespace, blk),
+    DEFINE_PROP_UINT32("nsid", NvmeNamespace, params.nsid, 0),
+    DEFINE_PROP_END_OF_LIST(),
+};
+
+static void nvme_ns_class_init(ObjectClass *oc, void *data)
+{
+    DeviceClass *dc = DEVICE_CLASS(oc);
+
+    set_bit(DEVICE_CATEGORY_STORAGE, dc->categories);
+
+    dc->bus_type = TYPE_NVME_BUS;
+    dc->realize = nvme_ns_realize;
+    device_class_set_props(dc, nvme_ns_props);
+    dc->desc = "Virtual NVMe namespace";
+}
+
+static void nvme_ns_instance_init(Object *obj)
+{
+    NvmeNamespace *ns = NVME_NS(obj);
+    char *bootindex = g_strdup_printf("/namespace@%d,0", ns->params.nsid);
+
+    device_add_bootindex_property(obj, &ns->bootindex, "bootindex",
+                                  bootindex, DEVICE(obj));
+
+    g_free(bootindex);
+}
+
+static const TypeInfo nvme_ns_info = {
+    .name = TYPE_NVME_NS,
+    .parent = TYPE_DEVICE,
+    .class_init = nvme_ns_class_init,
+    .instance_size = sizeof(NvmeNamespace),
+    .instance_init = nvme_ns_instance_init,
+};
+
+static void nvme_ns_register_types(void)
+{
+    type_register_static(&nvme_ns_info);
+}
+
+type_init(nvme_ns_register_types)
diff --git a/hw/block/nvme-ns.h b/hw/block/nvme-ns.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..16fa8b1e3fb9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/hw/block/nvme-ns.h
@@ -0,0 +1,66 @@ 
+/*
+ * QEMU NVM Express Virtual Namespace
+ *
+ * Copyright (c) 2019 CNEX Labs
+ * Copyright (c) 2020 Samsung Electronics
+ *
+ * Authors:
+ *  Klaus Jensen      <k.jensen@samsung.com>
+ *
+ * This work is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2. See the
+ * COPYING file in the top-level directory.
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef NVME_NS_H
+#define NVME_NS_H
+
+#define TYPE_NVME_NS "nvme-ns"
+#define NVME_NS(obj) \
+    OBJECT_CHECK(NvmeNamespace, (obj), TYPE_NVME_NS)
+
+typedef struct NvmeNamespaceParams {
+    uint32_t nsid;
+} NvmeNamespaceParams;
+
+typedef struct NvmeNamespace {
+    DeviceState  parent_obj;
+    BlockBackend *blk;
+    int32_t      bootindex;
+    int64_t      size;
+
+    NvmeIdNs            id_ns;
+    NvmeNamespaceParams params;
+} NvmeNamespace;
+
+static inline uint32_t nvme_nsid(NvmeNamespace *ns)
+{
+    if (ns) {
+        return ns->params.nsid;
+    }
+
+    return -1;
+}
+
+static inline NvmeLBAF *nvme_ns_lbaf(NvmeNamespace *ns)
+{
+    NvmeIdNs *id_ns = &ns->id_ns;
+    return &id_ns->lbaf[NVME_ID_NS_FLBAS_INDEX(id_ns->flbas)];
+}
+
+static inline uint8_t nvme_ns_lbads(NvmeNamespace *ns)
+{
+    return nvme_ns_lbaf(ns)->ds;
+}
+
+/* calculate the number of LBAs that the namespace can accomodate */
+static inline uint64_t nvme_ns_nlbas(NvmeNamespace *ns)
+{
+    return ns->size >> nvme_ns_lbads(ns);
+}
+
+typedef struct NvmeCtrl NvmeCtrl;
+
+int nvme_ns_setup(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns, Error **errp);
+
+#endif /* NVME_NS_H */
diff --git a/hw/block/nvme.c b/hw/block/nvme.c
index eaee420219fd..9db8e4811433 100644
--- a/hw/block/nvme.c
+++ b/hw/block/nvme.c
@@ -17,11 +17,12 @@ 
 /**
  * Usage: add options:
  *      -drive file=<file>,if=none,id=<drive_id>
- *      -device nvme,drive=<drive_id>,serial=<serial>,id=<id[optional]>, \
+ *      -device nvme,serial=<serial>,id=<bus_name>, \
  *              [cmb_size_mb=<cmb_size_mb>,] \
  *              [pmrdev=<mem_backend_file_id>,] \
  *              [max_ioqpairs=<N>,] \
  *              [mdts=<N>]
+ *      -device nvme-ns,drive=<drive_id>,bus=bus_name,nsid=<nsid>
  *
  * Note cmb_size_mb denotes size of CMB in MB. CMB is assumed to be at
  * offset 0 in BAR2 and supports only WDS, RDS and SQS for now.
@@ -54,6 +55,7 @@ 
 #include "qemu/cutils.h"
 #include "trace.h"
 #include "nvme.h"
+#include "nvme-ns.h"
 
 #define NVME_MAX_IOQPAIRS 0xffff
 #define NVME_REG_SIZE 0x1000
@@ -104,6 +106,11 @@  static int nvme_addr_read(NvmeCtrl *n, hwaddr addr, void *buf, int size)
     return pci_dma_read(&n->parent_obj, addr, buf, size);
 }
 
+static bool nvme_nsid_valid(NvmeCtrl *n, uint32_t nsid)
+{
+    return nsid && (nsid == NVME_NSID_BROADCAST || nsid <= n->num_namespaces);
+}
+
 static int nvme_check_sqid(NvmeCtrl *n, uint16_t sqid)
 {
     return sqid < n->params.max_ioqpairs + 1 && n->sq[sqid] != NULL ? 0 : -1;
@@ -932,11 +939,12 @@  static uint16_t nvme_check_rw(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
 static void nvme_rw_cb(NvmeRequest *req, void *opaque)
 {
+    NvmeNamespace *ns = req->ns;
     NvmeSQueue *sq = req->sq;
     NvmeCtrl *n = sq->ctrl;
     NvmeCQueue *cq = n->cq[sq->cqid];
 
-    trace_pci_nvme_rw_cb(nvme_cid(req));
+    trace_pci_nvme_rw_cb(nvme_cid(req), nvme_nsid(ns));
 
     nvme_enqueue_req_completion(cq, req);
 }
@@ -1017,14 +1025,13 @@  static void nvme_aio_cb(void *opaque, int ret)
     nvme_aio_destroy(aio);
 }
 
-static void nvme_aio_rw(NvmeNamespace *ns, BlockBackend *blk, NvmeAIOOp opc,
-                        NvmeRequest *req)
+static void nvme_aio_rw(NvmeNamespace *ns, NvmeAIOOp opc, NvmeRequest *req)
 {
     NvmeAIO *aio = g_new(NvmeAIO, 1);
 
     *aio = (NvmeAIO) {
         .opc = opc,
-        .blk = blk,
+        .blk = ns->blk,
         .offset = req->slba << nvme_ns_lbads(ns),
         .req = req,
     };
@@ -1043,11 +1050,12 @@  static void nvme_aio_rw(NvmeNamespace *ns, BlockBackend *blk, NvmeAIOOp opc,
 
 static uint16_t nvme_flush(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 {
+    NvmeNamespace *ns = req->ns;
     NvmeAIO *aio = g_new0(NvmeAIO, 1);
 
     *aio = (NvmeAIO) {
         .opc = NVME_AIO_OPC_FLUSH,
-        .blk = n->conf.blk,
+        .blk = ns->blk,
         .req = req,
     };
 
@@ -1069,7 +1077,8 @@  static uint16_t nvme_write_zeroes(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
     req->slba = le64_to_cpu(rw->slba);
     req->nlb  = le16_to_cpu(rw->nlb) + 1;
 
-    trace_pci_nvme_write_zeroes(nvme_cid(req), req->slba, req->nlb);
+    trace_pci_nvme_write_zeroes(nvme_cid(req), nvme_nsid(ns), req->slba,
+                                req->nlb);
 
     status = nvme_check_bounds(n, ns, req->slba, req->nlb);
     if (status) {
@@ -1085,7 +1094,7 @@  static uint16_t nvme_write_zeroes(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
     *aio = (NvmeAIO) {
         .opc = NVME_AIO_OPC_WRITE_ZEROES,
-        .blk = n->conf.blk,
+        .blk = ns->blk,
         .offset = offset,
         .len = count,
         .req = req,
@@ -1114,11 +1123,10 @@  static uint16_t nvme_rw(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
     req->nlb  = le16_to_cpu(rw->nlb) + 1;
     req->slba = le64_to_cpu(rw->slba);
-
     len = req->nlb << nvme_ns_lbads(ns);
 
-    trace_pci_nvme_rw(nvme_req_is_write(req) ? "write" : "read", req->nlb,
-                      len, req->slba);
+    trace_pci_nvme_rw(nvme_cid(req), nvme_req_is_write(req) ? "write" : "read",
+                      nvme_nsid(ns), req->nlb, len, req->slba);
 
     status = nvme_check_rw(n, req);
     if (status) {
@@ -1130,13 +1138,13 @@  static uint16_t nvme_rw(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
         goto invalid;
     }
 
-    nvme_aio_rw(ns, n->conf.blk, opc, req);
+    nvme_aio_rw(ns, opc, req);
     nvme_req_set_cb(req, nvme_rw_cb, NULL);
 
     return NVME_NO_COMPLETE;
 
 invalid:
-    block_acct_invalid(blk_get_stats(n->conf.blk), acct);
+    block_acct_invalid(blk_get_stats(ns->blk), acct);
     return status;
 }
 
@@ -1147,12 +1155,15 @@  static uint16_t nvme_io_cmd(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
     trace_pci_nvme_io_cmd(nvme_cid(req), nsid, nvme_sqid(req),
                           req->cmd.opcode);
 
-    if (unlikely(nsid == 0 || nsid > n->num_namespaces)) {
-        trace_pci_nvme_err_invalid_ns(nsid, n->num_namespaces);
+    if (!nvme_nsid_valid(n, nsid)) {
         return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
     }
 
-    req->ns = &n->namespaces[nsid - 1];
+    req->ns = nvme_ns(n, nsid);
+    if (unlikely(!req->ns)) {
+        return NVME_INVALID_FIELD | NVME_DNR;
+    }
+
     switch (req->cmd.opcode) {
     case NVME_CMD_FLUSH:
         return nvme_flush(n, req);
@@ -1297,18 +1308,24 @@  static uint16_t nvme_smart_info(NvmeCtrl *n, uint8_t rae, uint32_t buf_len,
     uint64_t units_read = 0, units_written = 0;
     uint64_t read_commands = 0, write_commands = 0;
     NvmeSmartLog smart;
-    BlockAcctStats *s;
 
     if (nsid && nsid != 0xffffffff) {
         return NVME_INVALID_FIELD | NVME_DNR;
     }
 
-    s = blk_get_stats(n->conf.blk);
+    for (int i = 1; i <= n->num_namespaces; i++) {
+        NvmeNamespace *ns = nvme_ns(n, i);
+        if (!ns) {
+            continue;
+        }
 
-    units_read = s->nr_bytes[BLOCK_ACCT_READ] >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
-    units_written = s->nr_bytes[BLOCK_ACCT_WRITE] >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
-    read_commands = s->nr_ops[BLOCK_ACCT_READ];
-    write_commands = s->nr_ops[BLOCK_ACCT_WRITE];
+        BlockAcctStats *s = blk_get_stats(ns->blk);
+
+        units_read += s->nr_bytes[BLOCK_ACCT_READ] >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
+        units_written += s->nr_bytes[BLOCK_ACCT_WRITE] >> BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
+        read_commands += s->nr_ops[BLOCK_ACCT_READ];
+        write_commands += s->nr_ops[BLOCK_ACCT_WRITE];
+    }
 
     if (off > sizeof(smart)) {
         return NVME_INVALID_FIELD | NVME_DNR;
@@ -1551,18 +1568,23 @@  static uint16_t nvme_identify_ns(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 {
     NvmeNamespace *ns;
     NvmeIdentify *c = (NvmeIdentify *)&req->cmd;
+    NvmeIdNs *id_ns, inactive = { 0 };
     uint32_t nsid = le32_to_cpu(c->nsid);
 
     trace_pci_nvme_identify_ns(nsid);
 
-    if (unlikely(nsid == 0 || nsid > n->num_namespaces)) {
-        trace_pci_nvme_err_invalid_ns(nsid, n->num_namespaces);
+    if (!nvme_nsid_valid(n, nsid) || nsid == NVME_NSID_BROADCAST) {
         return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
     }
 
-    ns = &n->namespaces[nsid - 1];
+    ns = nvme_ns(n, nsid);
+    if (unlikely(!ns)) {
+        id_ns = &inactive;
+    } else {
+        id_ns = &ns->id_ns;
+    }
 
-    return nvme_dma(n, (uint8_t *)&ns->id_ns, sizeof(ns->id_ns),
+    return nvme_dma(n, (uint8_t *)id_ns, sizeof(NvmeIdNs),
                     DMA_DIRECTION_FROM_DEVICE, req);
 }
 
@@ -1579,7 +1601,7 @@  static uint16_t nvme_identify_nslist(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
     list = g_malloc0(data_len);
     for (int i = 1; i <= n->num_namespaces; i++) {
-        if (i <= min_nsid) {
+        if (i <= min_nsid || !nvme_ns(n, i)) {
             continue;
         }
         list[j++] = cpu_to_le32(i);
@@ -1597,7 +1619,6 @@  static uint16_t nvme_identify_ns_descr_list(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 {
     NvmeIdentify *c = (NvmeIdentify *)&req->cmd;
     uint32_t nsid = le32_to_cpu(c->nsid);
-
     uint8_t list[NVME_IDENTIFY_DATA_SIZE];
 
     struct data {
@@ -1611,11 +1632,14 @@  static uint16_t nvme_identify_ns_descr_list(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
     trace_pci_nvme_identify_ns_descr_list(nsid);
 
-    if (unlikely(nsid == 0 || nsid > n->num_namespaces)) {
-        trace_pci_nvme_err_invalid_ns(nsid, n->num_namespaces);
+    if (!nvme_nsid_valid(n, nsid) || nsid == NVME_NSID_BROADCAST) {
         return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
     }
 
+    if (unlikely(!nvme_ns(n, nsid))) {
+        return NVME_INVALID_FIELD | NVME_DNR;
+    }
+
     memset(list, 0x0, sizeof(list));
 
     /*
@@ -1729,7 +1753,7 @@  static uint16_t nvme_get_feature(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
     }
 
     if (nvme_feature_cap[fid] & NVME_FEAT_CAP_NS) {
-        if (!nsid || nsid > n->num_namespaces) {
+        if (!nvme_nsid_valid(n, nsid) || nsid == NVME_NSID_BROADCAST) {
             /*
              * The Reservation Notification Mask and Reservation Persistence
              * features require a status code of Invalid Field in Command when
@@ -1739,6 +1763,10 @@  static uint16_t nvme_get_feature(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
              */
             return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
         }
+
+        if (!nvme_ns(n, nsid)) {
+            return NVME_INVALID_FIELD | NVME_DNR;
+        }
     }
 
     switch (sel) {
@@ -1776,7 +1804,7 @@  static uint16_t nvme_get_feature(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
         break;
     case NVME_VOLATILE_WRITE_CACHE:
-        result = cpu_to_le32(blk_enable_write_cache(n->conf.blk));
+        result = cpu_to_le32(n->features.vwc);
         trace_pci_nvme_getfeat_vwcache(result ? "enabled" : "disabled");
         break;
     case NVME_ASYNCHRONOUS_EVENT_CONF:
@@ -1848,6 +1876,8 @@  static uint16_t nvme_set_feature_timestamp(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
 static uint16_t nvme_set_feature(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 {
+    NvmeNamespace *ns;
+
     NvmeCmd *cmd = &req->cmd;
     uint32_t dw10 = le32_to_cpu(cmd->cdw10);
     uint32_t dw11 = le32_to_cpu(cmd->cdw11);
@@ -1866,12 +1896,18 @@  static uint16_t nvme_set_feature(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
     }
 
     if (nvme_feature_cap[fid] & NVME_FEAT_CAP_NS) {
-        if (!nsid || (nsid != NVME_NSID_BROADCAST &&
-                      nsid > n->num_namespaces)) {
-            return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
+        if (nsid != NVME_NSID_BROADCAST) {
+            if (!nvme_nsid_valid(n, nsid)) {
+                return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
+            }
+
+            ns = nvme_ns(n, nsid);
+            if (unlikely(!ns)) {
+                return NVME_INVALID_FIELD | NVME_DNR;
+            }
         }
     } else if (nsid && nsid != NVME_NSID_BROADCAST) {
-        if (nsid > n->num_namespaces) {
+        if (!nvme_nsid_valid(n, nsid)) {
             return NVME_INVALID_NSID | NVME_DNR;
         }
 
@@ -1909,12 +1945,23 @@  static uint16_t nvme_set_feature(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeRequest *req)
 
         break;
     case NVME_VOLATILE_WRITE_CACHE:
-        if (!(dw11 & 0x1) && blk_enable_write_cache(n->conf.blk)) {
-            blk_flush(n->conf.blk);
+        n->features.vwc = dw11 & 0x1;
+
+        for (int i = 1; i <= n->num_namespaces; i++) {
+            ns = nvme_ns(n, i);
+            if (!ns) {
+                continue;
+            }
+
+            if (!(dw11 & 0x1) && blk_enable_write_cache(n->conf.blk)) {
+                blk_flush(n->conf.blk);
+            }
+
+            blk_set_enable_write_cache(ns->blk, dw11 & 1);
         }
 
-        blk_set_enable_write_cache(n->conf.blk, dw11 & 1);
         break;
+
     case NVME_NUMBER_OF_QUEUES:
         if (n->qs_created) {
             return NVME_CMD_SEQ_ERROR | NVME_DNR;
@@ -2034,9 +2081,17 @@  static void nvme_process_sq(void *opaque)
 
 static void nvme_clear_ctrl(NvmeCtrl *n)
 {
+    NvmeNamespace *ns;
     int i;
 
-    blk_drain(n->conf.blk);
+    for (i = 1; i <= n->num_namespaces; i++) {
+        ns = nvme_ns(n, i);
+        if (!ns) {
+            continue;
+        }
+
+        blk_drain(ns->blk);
+    }
 
     for (i = 0; i < n->params.max_ioqpairs + 1; i++) {
         if (n->sq[i] != NULL) {
@@ -2059,7 +2114,15 @@  static void nvme_clear_ctrl(NvmeCtrl *n)
     n->outstanding_aers = 0;
     n->qs_created = false;
 
-    blk_flush(n->conf.blk);
+    for (i = 1; i <= n->num_namespaces; i++) {
+        ns = nvme_ns(n, i);
+        if (!ns) {
+            continue;
+        }
+
+        blk_flush(ns->blk);
+    }
+
     n->bar.cc = 0;
 }
 
@@ -2524,6 +2587,11 @@  static void nvme_check_constraints(NvmeCtrl *n, Error **errp)
         params->max_ioqpairs = params->num_queues - 1;
     }
 
+    if (n->namespace.blk) {
+        warn_report("drive property is deprecated; "
+                    "please use an nvme-ns device instead");
+    }
+
     if (params->max_ioqpairs < 1 ||
         params->max_ioqpairs > NVME_MAX_IOQPAIRS) {
         error_setg(errp, "max_ioqpairs must be between 1 and %d",
@@ -2538,11 +2606,6 @@  static void nvme_check_constraints(NvmeCtrl *n, Error **errp)
         return;
     }
 
-    if (!n->conf.blk) {
-        error_setg(errp, "drive property not set");
-        return;
-    }
-
     if (!params->serial) {
         error_setg(errp, "serial property not set");
         return;
@@ -2567,11 +2630,10 @@  static void nvme_check_constraints(NvmeCtrl *n, Error **errp)
 
 static void nvme_init_state(NvmeCtrl *n)
 {
-    n->num_namespaces = 1;
+    n->num_namespaces = NVME_MAX_NAMESPACES;
     /* add one to max_ioqpairs to account for the admin queue pair */
     n->reg_size = pow2ceil(NVME_REG_SIZE +
                            2 * (n->params.max_ioqpairs + 1) * NVME_DB_SIZE);
-    n->namespaces = g_new0(NvmeNamespace, n->num_namespaces);
     n->sq = g_new0(NvmeSQueue *, n->params.max_ioqpairs + 1);
     n->cq = g_new0(NvmeCQueue *, n->params.max_ioqpairs + 1);
     n->temperature = NVME_TEMPERATURE;
@@ -2580,34 +2642,41 @@  static void nvme_init_state(NvmeCtrl *n)
     n->aer_reqs = g_new0(NvmeRequest *, n->params.aerl + 1);
 }
 
-static void nvme_init_blk(NvmeCtrl *n, Error **errp)
+int nvme_register_namespace(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns, Error **errp)
 {
-    if (!blkconf_blocksizes(&n->conf, errp)) {
-        return;
-    }
-    blkconf_apply_backend_options(&n->conf, blk_is_read_only(n->conf.blk),
-                                  false, errp);
-}
+    uint32_t nsid = nvme_nsid(ns);
 
-static void nvme_init_namespace(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns, Error **errp)
-{
-    int64_t bs_size;
-    NvmeIdNs *id_ns = &ns->id_ns;
-
-    bs_size = blk_getlength(n->conf.blk);
-    if (bs_size < 0) {
-        error_setg_errno(errp, -bs_size, "could not get backing file size");
-        return;
+    if (nsid > NVME_MAX_NAMESPACES) {
+        error_setg(errp, "invalid namespace id (must be between 0 and %d)",
+                   NVME_MAX_NAMESPACES);
+        return -1;
     }
 
-    n->ns_size = bs_size;
+    if (!nsid) {
+        for (int i = 1; i <= n->num_namespaces; i++) {
+            NvmeNamespace *ns = nvme_ns(n, i);
+            if (!ns) {
+                nsid = i;
+                break;
+            }
+        }
 
-    id_ns->lbaf[0].ds = BDRV_SECTOR_BITS;
-    id_ns->nsze = cpu_to_le64(nvme_ns_nlbas(n, ns));
+        if (!nsid) {
+            error_setg(errp, "no free namespace id");
+            return -1;
+        }
+    } else {
+        if (n->namespaces[nsid - 1]) {
+            error_setg(errp, "namespace id '%d' is already in use", nsid);
+            return -1;
+        }
+    }
 
-    /* no thin provisioning */
-    id_ns->ncap = id_ns->nsze;
-    id_ns->nuse = id_ns->ncap;
+    trace_pci_nvme_register_namespace(nsid);
+
+    n->namespaces[nsid - 1] = ns;
+
+    return 0;
 }
 
 static void nvme_init_cmb(NvmeCtrl *n, PCIDevice *pci_dev)
@@ -2749,6 +2818,7 @@  static void nvme_init_ctrl(NvmeCtrl *n, PCIDevice *pci_dev)
     id->oncs = cpu_to_le16(NVME_ONCS_WRITE_ZEROES | NVME_ONCS_TIMESTAMP |
                            NVME_ONCS_FEATURES);
 
+    id->vwc = 0x1;
     id->sgls = cpu_to_le32(NVME_CTRL_SGLS_SUPPORTED_NO_ALIGNMENT |
                            NVME_CTRL_SGLS_BITBUCKET);
 
@@ -2758,9 +2828,6 @@  static void nvme_init_ctrl(NvmeCtrl *n, PCIDevice *pci_dev)
     id->psd[0].mp = cpu_to_le16(0x9c4);
     id->psd[0].enlat = cpu_to_le32(0x10);
     id->psd[0].exlat = cpu_to_le32(0x4);
-    if (blk_enable_write_cache(n->conf.blk)) {
-        id->vwc = 1;
-    }
 
     n->bar.cap = 0;
     NVME_CAP_SET_MQES(n->bar.cap, 0x7ff);
@@ -2776,23 +2843,19 @@  static void nvme_init_ctrl(NvmeCtrl *n, PCIDevice *pci_dev)
 static void nvme_realize(PCIDevice *pci_dev, Error **errp)
 {
     NvmeCtrl *n = NVME(pci_dev);
+    NvmeNamespace *ns;
     Error *local_err = NULL;
 
-    int i;
-
     nvme_check_constraints(n, &local_err);
     if (local_err) {
         error_propagate(errp, local_err);
         return;
     }
 
-    nvme_init_state(n);
-    nvme_init_blk(n, &local_err);
-    if (local_err) {
-        error_propagate(errp, local_err);
-        return;
-    }
+    qbus_create_inplace(&n->bus, sizeof(NvmeBus), TYPE_NVME_BUS,
+                        &pci_dev->qdev, n->parent_obj.qdev.id);
 
+    nvme_init_state(n);
     nvme_init_pci(n, pci_dev, &local_err);
     if (local_err) {
         error_propagate(errp, local_err);
@@ -2801,10 +2864,12 @@  static void nvme_realize(PCIDevice *pci_dev, Error **errp)
 
     nvme_init_ctrl(n, pci_dev);
 
-    for (i = 0; i < n->num_namespaces; i++) {
-        nvme_init_namespace(n, &n->namespaces[i], &local_err);
-        if (local_err) {
-            error_propagate(errp, local_err);
+    /* setup a namespace if the controller drive property was given */
+    if (n->namespace.blk) {
+        ns = &n->namespace;
+        ns->params.nsid = 1;
+
+        if (nvme_ns_setup(n, ns, errp)) {
             return;
         }
     }
@@ -2831,7 +2896,8 @@  static void nvme_exit(PCIDevice *pci_dev)
 }
 
 static Property nvme_props[] = {
-    DEFINE_BLOCK_PROPERTIES(NvmeCtrl, conf),
+    DEFINE_BLOCK_PROPERTIES_BASE(NvmeCtrl, conf),
+    DEFINE_PROP_DRIVE("drive", NvmeCtrl, namespace.blk),
     DEFINE_PROP_LINK("pmrdev", NvmeCtrl, pmrdev, TYPE_MEMORY_BACKEND,
                      HostMemoryBackend *),
     DEFINE_PROP_STRING("serial", NvmeCtrl, params.serial),
@@ -2872,26 +2938,35 @@  static void nvme_instance_init(Object *obj)
 {
     NvmeCtrl *s = NVME(obj);
 
-    device_add_bootindex_property(obj, &s->conf.bootindex,
-                                  "bootindex", "/namespace@1,0",
-                                  DEVICE(obj));
+    if (s->namespace.blk) {
+        device_add_bootindex_property(obj, &s->conf.bootindex,
+                                      "bootindex", "/namespace@1,0",
+                                      DEVICE(obj));
+    }
 }
 
 static const TypeInfo nvme_info = {
     .name          = TYPE_NVME,
     .parent        = TYPE_PCI_DEVICE,
     .instance_size = sizeof(NvmeCtrl),
-    .class_init    = nvme_class_init,
     .instance_init = nvme_instance_init,
+    .class_init    = nvme_class_init,
     .interfaces = (InterfaceInfo[]) {
         { INTERFACE_PCIE_DEVICE },
         { }
     },
 };
 
+static const TypeInfo nvme_bus_info = {
+    .name = TYPE_NVME_BUS,
+    .parent = TYPE_BUS,
+    .instance_size = sizeof(NvmeBus),
+};
+
 static void nvme_register_types(void)
 {
     type_register_static(&nvme_info);
+    type_register_static(&nvme_bus_info);
 }
 
 type_init(nvme_register_types)
diff --git a/hw/block/nvme.h b/hw/block/nvme.h
index c75b13a77efd..8d7610477e7d 100644
--- a/hw/block/nvme.h
+++ b/hw/block/nvme.h
@@ -2,6 +2,9 @@ 
 #define HW_NVME_H
 
 #include "block/nvme.h"
+#include "nvme-ns.h"
+
+#define NVME_MAX_NAMESPACES 256
 
 typedef struct NvmeParams {
     char     *serial;
@@ -80,21 +83,6 @@  typedef struct NvmeCQueue {
     QTAILQ_HEAD(, NvmeRequest) req_list;
 } NvmeCQueue;
 
-typedef struct NvmeNamespace {
-    NvmeIdNs        id_ns;
-} NvmeNamespace;
-
-static inline NvmeLBAF *nvme_ns_lbaf(NvmeNamespace *ns)
-{
-    NvmeIdNs *id_ns = &ns->id_ns;
-    return &id_ns->lbaf[NVME_ID_NS_FLBAS_INDEX(id_ns->flbas)];
-}
-
-static inline uint8_t nvme_ns_lbads(NvmeNamespace *ns)
-{
-    return nvme_ns_lbaf(ns)->ds;
-}
-
 typedef enum NvmeAIOOp {
     NVME_AIO_OPC_NONE         = 0x0,
     NVME_AIO_OPC_FLUSH        = 0x1,
@@ -157,6 +145,13 @@  static inline bool nvme_req_is_dma(NvmeRequest *req)
     return req->qsg.sg != NULL;
 }
 
+#define TYPE_NVME_BUS "nvme-bus"
+#define NVME_BUS(obj) OBJECT_CHECK(NvmeBus, (obj), TYPE_NVME_BUS)
+
+typedef struct NvmeBus {
+    BusState parent_bus;
+} NvmeBus;
+
 #define TYPE_NVME "nvme"
 #define NVME(obj) \
         OBJECT_CHECK(NvmeCtrl, (obj), TYPE_NVME)
@@ -170,6 +165,7 @@  typedef struct NvmeFeatureVal {
         uint32_t temp_thresh;
     };
     uint32_t    async_config;
+    uint32_t    vwc;
 } NvmeFeatureVal;
 
 static const uint32_t nvme_feature_cap[0x100] = {
@@ -203,8 +199,9 @@  typedef struct NvmeCtrl {
     MemoryRegion iomem;
     MemoryRegion ctrl_mem;
     NvmeBar      bar;
-    BlockConf    conf;
     NvmeParams   params;
+    NvmeBus      bus;
+    BlockConf    conf;
 
     bool        qs_created;
     uint32_t    page_size;
@@ -215,7 +212,6 @@  typedef struct NvmeCtrl {
     uint32_t    reg_size;
     uint32_t    num_namespaces;
     uint32_t    max_q_ents;
-    uint64_t    ns_size;
     uint8_t     outstanding_aers;
     uint8_t     *cmbuf;
     uint32_t    irq_status;
@@ -231,7 +227,8 @@  typedef struct NvmeCtrl {
     QTAILQ_HEAD(, NvmeAsyncEvent) aer_queue;
     int         aer_queued;
 
-    NvmeNamespace   *namespaces;
+    NvmeNamespace   namespace;
+    NvmeNamespace   *namespaces[NVME_MAX_NAMESPACES];
     NvmeSQueue      **sq;
     NvmeCQueue      **cq;
     NvmeSQueue      admin_sq;
@@ -240,10 +237,13 @@  typedef struct NvmeCtrl {
     NvmeFeatureVal  features;
 } NvmeCtrl;
 
-/* calculate the number of LBAs that the namespace can accomodate */
-static inline uint64_t nvme_ns_nlbas(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns)
+static inline NvmeNamespace *nvme_ns(NvmeCtrl *n, uint32_t nsid)
 {
-    return n->ns_size >> nvme_ns_lbads(ns);
+    if (!nsid || nsid > n->num_namespaces) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    return n->namespaces[nsid - 1];
 }
 
 static inline uint16_t nvme_cid(NvmeRequest *req)
@@ -260,4 +260,6 @@  static inline uint16_t nvme_sqid(NvmeRequest *req)
     return le16_to_cpu(req->sq->sqid);
 }
 
+int nvme_register_namespace(NvmeCtrl *n, NvmeNamespace *ns, Error **errp);
+
 #endif /* HW_NVME_H */
diff --git a/hw/block/trace-events b/hw/block/trace-events
index a77f5e049bef..cbcfbfdfbafc 100644
--- a/hw/block/trace-events
+++ b/hw/block/trace-events
@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@  hd_geometry_guess(void *blk, uint32_t cyls, uint32_t heads, uint32_t secs, int t
 
 # nvme.c
 # nvme traces for successful events
+pci_nvme_register_namespace(uint32_t nsid) "nsid %"PRIu32""
 pci_nvme_irq_msix(uint32_t vector) "raising MSI-X IRQ vector %u"
 pci_nvme_irq_pin(void) "pulsing IRQ pin"
 pci_nvme_irq_masked(void) "IRQ is masked"
@@ -41,9 +42,9 @@  pci_nvme_req_add_aio(uint16_t cid, void *aio, const char *blkname, uint64_t offs
 pci_nvme_aio_cb(uint16_t cid, void *aio, const char *blkname, uint64_t offset, const char *opc, void *req) "cid %"PRIu16" aio %p blk \"%s\" offset %"PRIu64" opc \"%s\" req %p"
 pci_nvme_io_cmd(uint16_t cid, uint32_t nsid, uint16_t sqid, uint8_t opcode) "cid %"PRIu16" nsid %"PRIu32" sqid %"PRIu16" opc 0x%"PRIx8""
 pci_nvme_admin_cmd(uint16_t cid, uint16_t sqid, uint8_t opcode) "cid %"PRIu16" sqid %"PRIu16" opc 0x%"PRIx8""
-pci_nvme_rw(const char *verb, uint32_t blk_count, uint64_t byte_count, uint64_t lba) "%s %"PRIu32" blocks (%"PRIu64" bytes) from LBA %"PRIu64""
-pci_nvme_rw_cb(uint16_t cid) "cid %"PRIu16""
-pci_nvme_write_zeroes(uint16_t cid, uint64_t slba, uint32_t nlb) "cid %"PRIu16" slba %"PRIu64" nlb %"PRIu32""
+pci_nvme_rw(uint16_t cid, const char *verb, uint32_t nsid, uint32_t nlb, uint64_t count, uint64_t lba) "cid %"PRIu16" %s nsid %"PRIu32" nlb %"PRIu32" count %"PRIu64" lba 0x%"PRIx64""
+pci_nvme_rw_cb(uint16_t cid, uint32_t nsid) "cid %"PRIu16" nsid %"PRIu32""
+pci_nvme_write_zeroes(uint16_t cid, uint32_t nsid, uint64_t slba, uint32_t nlb) "cid %"PRIu16" nsid %"PRIu32" slba %"PRIu64" nlb %"PRIu32""
 pci_nvme_create_sq(uint64_t addr, uint16_t sqid, uint16_t cqid, uint16_t qsize, uint16_t qflags) "create submission queue, addr=0x%"PRIx64", sqid=%"PRIu16", cqid=%"PRIu16", qsize=%"PRIu16", qflags=%"PRIu16""
 pci_nvme_create_cq(uint64_t addr, uint16_t cqid, uint16_t vector, uint16_t size, uint16_t qflags, int ien) "create completion queue, addr=0x%"PRIx64", cqid=%"PRIu16", vector=%"PRIu16", qsize=%"PRIu16", qflags=%"PRIu16", ien=%d"
 pci_nvme_del_sq(uint16_t qid) "deleting submission queue sqid=%"PRIu16""
@@ -100,7 +101,6 @@  pci_nvme_err_invalid_prplist_ent(uint64_t prplist) "PRP list entry is null or no
 pci_nvme_err_invalid_prp2_align(uint64_t prp2) "PRP2 is not page aligned: 0x%"PRIx64""
 pci_nvme_err_invalid_prp2_missing(void) "PRP2 is null and more data to be transferred"
 pci_nvme_err_invalid_prp(void) "invalid PRP"
-pci_nvme_err_invalid_ns(uint32_t ns, uint32_t limit) "invalid namespace %u not within 1-%u"
 pci_nvme_err_invalid_opc(uint8_t opc) "invalid opcode 0x%"PRIx8""
 pci_nvme_err_invalid_admin_opc(uint8_t opc) "invalid admin opcode 0x%"PRIx8""
 pci_nvme_err_invalid_lba_range(uint64_t start, uint64_t len, uint64_t limit) "Invalid LBA start=%"PRIu64" len=%"PRIu64" limit=%"PRIu64""