irqchip/stm32-exti: map direct event to irq parent
diff mbox series

Message ID 20200706081106.25125-1-alexandre.torgue@st.com
State New
Headers show
Series
  • irqchip/stm32-exti: map direct event to irq parent
Related show

Commit Message

Alexandre Torgue July 6, 2020, 8:11 a.m. UTC
EXTI lines are mainly used to wake-up system from CStop low power mode.
Currently, if a device wants to use a EXTI (direct) line as wakeup line,
it has to declare 2 interrupts:
 - one for EXTI used to wake-up system (with dedicated_wake_irq api).
 - one for GIC used to get the wake up reason inside the concerned IP.

This split is not really needed as each EXTI line is actually "linked " to
a GIC. So to avoid this useless double interrupt management in each
wake-up driver, this patch lets the STM32 EXTI driver abstract it by
mapping each EXTI line to his corresponding GIC.

Signed-off-by: Alexandre Torgue <alexandre.torgue@st.com>

Comments

kernel test robot July 8, 2020, 4:57 a.m. UTC | #1
Hi Alexandre,

I love your patch! Perhaps something to improve:

[auto build test WARNING on stm32/stm32-next]
[also build test WARNING on soc/for-next v5.8-rc4 next-20200707]
[If your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, kindly drop us a note.
And when submitting patch, we suggest to use  as documented in
https://git-scm.com/docs/git-format-patch]

url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Alexandre-Torgue/irqchip-stm32-exti-map-direct-event-to-irq-parent/20200706-161327
base:   https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/atorgue/stm32.git stm32-next
config: arm-randconfig-s031-20200707 (attached as .config)
compiler: arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc (GCC) 9.3.0
reproduce:
        wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/intel/lkp-tests/master/sbin/make.cross -O ~/bin/make.cross
        chmod +x ~/bin/make.cross
        # apt-get install sparse
        # sparse version: v0.6.2-31-gabbfd661-dirty
        # save the attached .config to linux build tree
        COMPILER_INSTALL_PATH=$HOME/0day COMPILER=gcc-9.3.0 make.cross C=1 CF='-fdiagnostic-prefix -D__CHECK_ENDIAN__' ARCH=arm 

If you fix the issue, kindly add following tag as appropriate
Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>

All warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):

   In file included from include/linux/build_bug.h:5,
                    from include/linux/bits.h:23,
                    from include/linux/bitops.h:5,
                    from drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:8:
   drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c: In function 'stm32_exti_h_domain_alloc':
   drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:23: warning: comparison of unsigned expression >= 0 is always true [-Wtype-limits]
     683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
         |                       ^~
   include/linux/compiler.h:58:52: note: in definition of macro '__trace_if_var'
      58 | #define __trace_if_var(cond) (__builtin_constant_p(cond) ? (cond) : __trace_if_value(cond))
         |                                                    ^~~~
>> drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:2: note: in expansion of macro 'if'
     683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
         |  ^~
   drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:23: warning: comparison of unsigned expression >= 0 is always true [-Wtype-limits]
     683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
         |                       ^~
   include/linux/compiler.h:58:61: note: in definition of macro '__trace_if_var'
      58 | #define __trace_if_var(cond) (__builtin_constant_p(cond) ? (cond) : __trace_if_value(cond))
         |                                                             ^~~~
>> drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:2: note: in expansion of macro 'if'
     683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
         |  ^~
   drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:23: warning: comparison of unsigned expression >= 0 is always true [-Wtype-limits]
     683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
         |                       ^~
   include/linux/compiler.h:69:3: note: in definition of macro '__trace_if_value'
      69 |  (cond) ?     \
         |   ^~~~
   include/linux/compiler.h:56:28: note: in expansion of macro '__trace_if_var'
      56 | #define if(cond, ...) if ( __trace_if_var( !!(cond , ## __VA_ARGS__) ) )
         |                            ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>> drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:2: note: in expansion of macro 'if'
     683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
         |  ^~

vim +/if +683 drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c

   659	
   660	static int stm32_exti_h_domain_alloc(struct irq_domain *dm,
   661					     unsigned int virq,
   662					     unsigned int nr_irqs, void *data)
   663	{
   664		struct stm32_exti_host_data *host_data = dm->host_data;
   665		struct stm32_exti_chip_data *chip_data;
   666		const struct stm32_desc_irq *desc;
   667		struct irq_fwspec *fwspec = data;
   668		struct irq_fwspec p_fwspec;
   669		irq_hw_number_t hwirq;
   670		int bank;
   671	
   672		hwirq = fwspec->param[0];
   673		bank  = hwirq / IRQS_PER_BANK;
   674		chip_data = &host_data->chips_data[bank];
   675	
   676	
   677		desc = stm32_exti_get_desc(host_data->drv_data, hwirq);
   678		if (!desc)
   679			return -EINVAL;
   680	
   681		irq_domain_set_hwirq_and_chip(dm, virq, hwirq, desc->chip,
   682					      chip_data);
 > 683		if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
   684			p_fwspec.fwnode = dm->parent->fwnode;
   685			p_fwspec.param_count = 3;
   686			p_fwspec.param[0] = GIC_SPI;
   687			p_fwspec.param[1] = desc->irq_parent;
   688			p_fwspec.param[2] = IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH;
   689	
   690			return irq_domain_alloc_irqs_parent(dm, virq, 1, &p_fwspec);
   691		}
   692	
   693		return 0;
   694	}
   695	

---
0-DAY CI Kernel Test Service, Intel Corporation
https://lists.01.org/hyperkitty/list/kbuild-all@lists.01.org
Marc Zyngier July 10, 2020, 9:31 a.m. UTC | #2
Alexandre,

On Wed, 08 Jul 2020 05:57:24 +0100,
kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com> wrote:
> 
> [1  <text/plain; us-ascii (7bit)>]
> Hi Alexandre,
> 
> I love your patch! Perhaps something to improve:
> 
> [auto build test WARNING on stm32/stm32-next]
> [also build test WARNING on soc/for-next v5.8-rc4 next-20200707]
> [If your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, kindly drop us a note.
> And when submitting patch, we suggest to use  as documented in
> https://git-scm.com/docs/git-format-patch]
> 
> url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Alexandre-Torgue/irqchip-stm32-exti-map-direct-event-to-irq-parent/20200706-161327
> base:   https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/atorgue/stm32.git stm32-next
> config: arm-randconfig-s031-20200707 (attached as .config)
> compiler: arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc (GCC) 9.3.0
> reproduce:
>         wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/intel/lkp-tests/master/sbin/make.cross -O ~/bin/make.cross
>         chmod +x ~/bin/make.cross
>         # apt-get install sparse
>         # sparse version: v0.6.2-31-gabbfd661-dirty
>         # save the attached .config to linux build tree
>         COMPILER_INSTALL_PATH=$HOME/0day COMPILER=gcc-9.3.0 make.cross C=1 CF='-fdiagnostic-prefix -D__CHECK_ENDIAN__' ARCH=arm 
> 
> If you fix the issue, kindly add following tag as appropriate
> Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
> 
> All warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):
> 
>    In file included from include/linux/build_bug.h:5,
>                     from include/linux/bits.h:23,
>                     from include/linux/bitops.h:5,
>                     from drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:8:
>    drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c: In function 'stm32_exti_h_domain_alloc':
>    drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:23: warning: comparison of unsigned expression >= 0 is always true [-Wtype-limits]
>      683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
>          |                       ^~
>    include/linux/compiler.h:58:52: note: in definition of macro '__trace_if_var'
>       58 | #define __trace_if_var(cond) (__builtin_constant_p(cond) ? (cond) : __trace_if_value(cond))
>          |                                                    ^~~~
> >> drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:2: note: in expansion of macro 'if'
>      683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {

Do you plan to address this? Looks like an actual bug to me.

	M.
Alexandre Torgue July 10, 2020, 9:37 a.m. UTC | #3
Hi Marc,

On 7/10/20 11:31 AM, Marc Zyngier wrote:
> Alexandre,
> 
> On Wed, 08 Jul 2020 05:57:24 +0100,
> kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com> wrote:
>>
>> [1  <text/plain; us-ascii (7bit)>]
>> Hi Alexandre,
>>
>> I love your patch! Perhaps something to improve:
>>
>> [auto build test WARNING on stm32/stm32-next]
>> [also build test WARNING on soc/for-next v5.8-rc4 next-20200707]
>> [If your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, kindly drop us a note.
>> And when submitting patch, we suggest to use  as documented in
>> https://git-scm.com/docs/git-format-patch]
>>
>> url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Alexandre-Torgue/irqchip-stm32-exti-map-direct-event-to-irq-parent/20200706-161327
>> base:   https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/atorgue/stm32.git stm32-next
>> config: arm-randconfig-s031-20200707 (attached as .config)
>> compiler: arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc (GCC) 9.3.0
>> reproduce:
>>          wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/intel/lkp-tests/master/sbin/make.cross -O ~/bin/make.cross
>>          chmod +x ~/bin/make.cross
>>          # apt-get install sparse
>>          # sparse version: v0.6.2-31-gabbfd661-dirty
>>          # save the attached .config to linux build tree
>>          COMPILER_INSTALL_PATH=$HOME/0day COMPILER=gcc-9.3.0 make.cross C=1 CF='-fdiagnostic-prefix -D__CHECK_ENDIAN__' ARCH=arm
>>
>> If you fix the issue, kindly add following tag as appropriate
>> Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
>>
>> All warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):
>>
>>     In file included from include/linux/build_bug.h:5,
>>                      from include/linux/bits.h:23,
>>                      from include/linux/bitops.h:5,
>>                      from drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:8:
>>     drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c: In function 'stm32_exti_h_domain_alloc':
>>     drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:23: warning: comparison of unsigned expression >= 0 is always true [-Wtype-limits]
>>       683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
>>           |                       ^~
>>     include/linux/compiler.h:58:52: note: in definition of macro '__trace_if_var'
>>        58 | #define __trace_if_var(cond) (__builtin_constant_p(cond) ? (cond) : __trace_if_value(cond))
>>           |                                                    ^~~~
>>>> drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:2: note: in expansion of macro 'if'
>>       683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
> 
> Do you plan to address this? Looks like an actual bug to me.

I'll fix it in v2, I was just waiting for other comments before sending 
a v2. Do you prefer I send a v2 with this fix, and you'll do your review 
on this v2 ?

regards
alex

> 
> 	M.
>
Marc Zyngier July 17, 2020, 12:37 p.m. UTC | #4
On Fri, 10 Jul 2020 10:37:47 +0100,
Alexandre Torgue <alexandre.torgue@st.com> wrote:
> 
> Hi Marc,
> 
> On 7/10/20 11:31 AM, Marc Zyngier wrote:
> > Alexandre,
> > 
> > On Wed, 08 Jul 2020 05:57:24 +0100,
> > kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com> wrote:
> >> 
> >> [1  <text/plain; us-ascii (7bit)>]
> >> Hi Alexandre,
> >> 
> >> I love your patch! Perhaps something to improve:
> >> 
> >> [auto build test WARNING on stm32/stm32-next]
> >> [also build test WARNING on soc/for-next v5.8-rc4 next-20200707]
> >> [If your patch is applied to the wrong git tree, kindly drop us a note.
> >> And when submitting patch, we suggest to use  as documented in
> >> https://git-scm.com/docs/git-format-patch]
> >> 
> >> url:    https://github.com/0day-ci/linux/commits/Alexandre-Torgue/irqchip-stm32-exti-map-direct-event-to-irq-parent/20200706-161327
> >> base:   https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/atorgue/stm32.git stm32-next
> >> config: arm-randconfig-s031-20200707 (attached as .config)
> >> compiler: arm-linux-gnueabi-gcc (GCC) 9.3.0
> >> reproduce:
> >>          wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/intel/lkp-tests/master/sbin/make.cross -O ~/bin/make.cross
> >>          chmod +x ~/bin/make.cross
> >>          # apt-get install sparse
> >>          # sparse version: v0.6.2-31-gabbfd661-dirty
> >>          # save the attached .config to linux build tree
> >>          COMPILER_INSTALL_PATH=$HOME/0day COMPILER=gcc-9.3.0 make.cross C=1 CF='-fdiagnostic-prefix -D__CHECK_ENDIAN__' ARCH=arm
> >> 
> >> If you fix the issue, kindly add following tag as appropriate
> >> Reported-by: kernel test robot <lkp@intel.com>
> >> 
> >> All warnings (new ones prefixed by >>):
> >> 
> >>     In file included from include/linux/build_bug.h:5,
> >>                      from include/linux/bits.h:23,
> >>                      from include/linux/bitops.h:5,
> >>                      from drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:8:
> >>     drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c: In function 'stm32_exti_h_domain_alloc':
> >>     drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:23: warning: comparison of unsigned expression >= 0 is always true [-Wtype-limits]
> >>       683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
> >>           |                       ^~
> >>     include/linux/compiler.h:58:52: note: in definition of macro '__trace_if_var'
> >>        58 | #define __trace_if_var(cond) (__builtin_constant_p(cond) ? (cond) : __trace_if_value(cond))
> >>           |                                                    ^~~~
> >>>> drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c:683:2: note: in expansion of macro 'if'
> >>       683 |  if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
> > 
> > Do you plan to address this? Looks like an actual bug to me.
> 
> I'll fix it in v2, I was just waiting for other comments before
> sending a v2. Do you prefer I send a v2 with this fix, and you'll do
> your review on this v2 ?

I'm certainly not going to review something that has such a glaring
issue.

	M.

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c b/drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c
index faa8482c8246..26aaaae812aa 100644
--- a/drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c
+++ b/drivers/irqchip/irq-stm32-exti.c
@@ -42,6 +42,7 @@  struct stm32_exti_bank {
 struct stm32_desc_irq {
 	u32 exti;
 	u32 irq_parent;
+	struct irq_chip *chip;
 };
 
 struct stm32_exti_drv_data {
@@ -166,27 +167,41 @@  static const struct stm32_exti_bank *stm32mp1_exti_banks[] = {
 	&stm32mp1_exti_b3,
 };
 
+static struct irq_chip stm32_exti_h_chip;
+static struct irq_chip stm32_exti_h_chip_direct;
+
 static const struct stm32_desc_irq stm32mp1_desc_irq[] = {
-	{ .exti = 0, .irq_parent = 6 },
-	{ .exti = 1, .irq_parent = 7 },
-	{ .exti = 2, .irq_parent = 8 },
-	{ .exti = 3, .irq_parent = 9 },
-	{ .exti = 4, .irq_parent = 10 },
-	{ .exti = 5, .irq_parent = 23 },
-	{ .exti = 6, .irq_parent = 64 },
-	{ .exti = 7, .irq_parent = 65 },
-	{ .exti = 8, .irq_parent = 66 },
-	{ .exti = 9, .irq_parent = 67 },
-	{ .exti = 10, .irq_parent = 40 },
-	{ .exti = 11, .irq_parent = 42 },
-	{ .exti = 12, .irq_parent = 76 },
-	{ .exti = 13, .irq_parent = 77 },
-	{ .exti = 14, .irq_parent = 121 },
-	{ .exti = 15, .irq_parent = 127 },
-	{ .exti = 16, .irq_parent = 1 },
-	{ .exti = 65, .irq_parent = 144 },
-	{ .exti = 68, .irq_parent = 143 },
-	{ .exti = 73, .irq_parent = 129 },
+	{ .exti = 0, .irq_parent = 6, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 1, .irq_parent = 7, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 2, .irq_parent = 8, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 3, .irq_parent = 9, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 4, .irq_parent = 10, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 5, .irq_parent = 23, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 6, .irq_parent = 64, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 7, .irq_parent = 65, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 8, .irq_parent = 66, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 9, .irq_parent = 67, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 10, .irq_parent = 40, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 11, .irq_parent = 42, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 12, .irq_parent = 76, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 13, .irq_parent = 77, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 14, .irq_parent = 121, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 15, .irq_parent = 127, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 16, .irq_parent = 1, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 19, .irq_parent = 3, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 21, .irq_parent = 31, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 22, .irq_parent = 33, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 23, .irq_parent = 72, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 24, .irq_parent = 95, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 25, .irq_parent = 107, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 30, .irq_parent = 52, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 47, .irq_parent = 93, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 54, .irq_parent = 135, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 61, .irq_parent = 100, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 65, .irq_parent = 144, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 68, .irq_parent = 143, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
+	{ .exti = 70, .irq_parent = 62, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip_direct },
+	{ .exti = 73, .irq_parent = 129, .chip = &stm32_exti_h_chip },
 };
 
 static const struct stm32_exti_drv_data stm32mp1_drv_data = {
@@ -196,22 +211,23 @@  static const struct stm32_exti_drv_data stm32mp1_drv_data = {
 	.irq_nr = ARRAY_SIZE(stm32mp1_desc_irq),
 };
 
-static int stm32_exti_to_irq(const struct stm32_exti_drv_data *drv_data,
-			     irq_hw_number_t hwirq)
+static const struct
+stm32_desc_irq *stm32_exti_get_desc(const struct stm32_exti_drv_data *drv_data,
+				    irq_hw_number_t hwirq)
 {
-	const struct stm32_desc_irq *desc_irq;
+	const struct stm32_desc_irq *desc = NULL;
 	int i;
 
 	if (!drv_data->desc_irqs)
-		return -EINVAL;
+		return NULL;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < drv_data->irq_nr; i++) {
-		desc_irq = &drv_data->desc_irqs[i];
-		if (desc_irq->exti == hwirq)
-			return desc_irq->irq_parent;
+		desc = &drv_data->desc_irqs[i];
+		if (desc->exti == hwirq)
+			break;
 	}
 
-	return -EINVAL;
+	return desc;
 }
 
 static unsigned long stm32_exti_pending(struct irq_chip_generic *gc)
@@ -628,30 +644,47 @@  static struct irq_chip stm32_exti_h_chip = {
 	.irq_set_affinity	= IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SMP) ? stm32_exti_h_set_affinity : NULL,
 };
 
+static struct irq_chip stm32_exti_h_chip_direct = {
+	.name			= "stm32-exti-h-direct",
+	.irq_eoi		= irq_chip_eoi_parent,
+	.irq_ack		= irq_chip_ack_parent,
+	.irq_mask		= irq_chip_mask_parent,
+	.irq_unmask		= irq_chip_unmask_parent,
+	.irq_retrigger		= irq_chip_retrigger_hierarchy,
+	.irq_set_type		= irq_chip_set_type_parent,
+	.irq_set_wake		= stm32_exti_h_set_wake,
+	.flags			= IRQCHIP_MASK_ON_SUSPEND,
+	.irq_set_affinity	= IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SMP) ? irq_chip_set_affinity_parent : NULL,
+};
+
 static int stm32_exti_h_domain_alloc(struct irq_domain *dm,
 				     unsigned int virq,
 				     unsigned int nr_irqs, void *data)
 {
 	struct stm32_exti_host_data *host_data = dm->host_data;
 	struct stm32_exti_chip_data *chip_data;
+	const struct stm32_desc_irq *desc;
 	struct irq_fwspec *fwspec = data;
 	struct irq_fwspec p_fwspec;
 	irq_hw_number_t hwirq;
-	int p_irq, bank;
+	int bank;
 
 	hwirq = fwspec->param[0];
 	bank  = hwirq / IRQS_PER_BANK;
 	chip_data = &host_data->chips_data[bank];
 
-	irq_domain_set_hwirq_and_chip(dm, virq, hwirq,
-				      &stm32_exti_h_chip, chip_data);
 
-	p_irq = stm32_exti_to_irq(host_data->drv_data, hwirq);
-	if (p_irq >= 0) {
+	desc = stm32_exti_get_desc(host_data->drv_data, hwirq);
+	if (!desc)
+		return -EINVAL;
+
+	irq_domain_set_hwirq_and_chip(dm, virq, hwirq, desc->chip,
+				      chip_data);
+	if (desc->irq_parent >= 0) {
 		p_fwspec.fwnode = dm->parent->fwnode;
 		p_fwspec.param_count = 3;
 		p_fwspec.param[0] = GIC_SPI;
-		p_fwspec.param[1] = p_irq;
+		p_fwspec.param[1] = desc->irq_parent;
 		p_fwspec.param[2] = IRQ_TYPE_LEVEL_HIGH;
 
 		return irq_domain_alloc_irqs_parent(dm, virq, 1, &p_fwspec);