[v6,5/7] fs,doc: Enable to enforce noexec mounts or file exec through O_MAYEXEC
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Message ID 20200714181638.45751-6-mic@digikod.net
State New
Headers show
Series
  • Add support for O_MAYEXEC
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Commit Message

Mickaël Salaün July 14, 2020, 6:16 p.m. UTC
Allow for the enforcement of the O_MAYEXEC openat2(2) flag.  Thanks to
the noexec option from the underlying VFS mount, or to the file execute
permission, userspace can enforce these execution policies.  This may
allow script interpreters to check execution permission before reading
commands from a file, or dynamic linkers to allow shared object loading.

Add a new sysctl fs.open_mayexec_enforce to enable system administrators
to enforce two complementary security policies according to the
installed system: enforce the noexec mount option, and enforce
executable file permission.  Indeed, because of compatibility with
installed systems, only system administrators are able to check that
this new enforcement is in line with the system mount points and file
permissions.  A following patch adds documentation.

Being able to restrict execution also enables to protect the kernel by
restricting arbitrary syscalls that an attacker could perform with a
crafted binary or certain script languages.  It also improves multilevel
isolation by reducing the ability of an attacker to use side channels
with specific code.  These restrictions can natively be enforced for ELF
binaries (with the noexec mount option) but require this kernel
extension to properly handle scripts (e.g., Python, Perl).  To get a
consistent execution policy, additional memory restrictions should also
be enforced (e.g. thanks to SELinux).

Because the O_MAYEXEC flag is a meant to enforce a system-wide security
policy (but not application-centric policies), it does not make sense
for userland to check the sysctl value.  Indeed, this new flag only
enables to extend the system ability to enforce a policy thanks to (some
trusted) userland collaboration.  Moreover, additional security policies
could be managed by LSMs.  This is a best-effort approach from the
application developer point of view:
https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/1477d3d7-4b36-afad-7077-a38f42322238@digikod.net/

Signed-off-by: Mickaël Salaün <mic@digikod.net>
Reviewed-by: Thibaut Sautereau <thibaut.sautereau@ssi.gouv.fr>
Cc: Aleksa Sarai <cyphar@cyphar.com>
Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
---

Changes since v5:
* Remove the static enforcement configuration through Kconfig because it
  makes the code more simple like this, and because the current sysctl
  configuration can only be set with CAP_SYS_ADMIN, the same way mount
  options (i.e. noexec) can be set.  If an harden distro wants to
  enforce a configuration, it should restrict capabilities or sysctl
  configuration.  Furthermore, an LSM can easily leverage O_MAYEXEC to
  fit its need.
* Move checks from inode_permission() to may_open() and make the error
  codes more consistent according to file types (in line with a previous
  commit): opening a directory with O_MAYEXEC returns EISDIR and other
  non-regular file types may return EACCES.
* In may_open(), when OMAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE is set, replace explicit
  call to generic_permission() with an artificial MAY_EXEC to avoid
  double calls.  This makes sense especially when an LSM policy forbids
  execution of a file.
* Replace the custom proc_omayexec() with
  proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(), and then replace the CAP_MAC_ADMIN
  check with a CAP_SYS_ADMIN one (suggested by Kees Cook and Stephen
  Smalley).
* Use BIT() (suggested by Kees Cook).
* Rename variables (suggested by Kees Cook).
* Reword the kconfig help.
* Import the documentation patch (suggested by Kees Cook):
  https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200505153156.925111-6-mic@digikod.net/
* Update documentation and add LWN.net article.

Changes since v4:
* Add kernel configuration options to enforce O_MAYEXEC at build time,
  and disable the sysctl in such case (requested by James Morris).
* Reword commit message.

Changes since v3:
* Update comment with O_MAYEXEC.

Changes since v2:
* Cosmetic changes.

Changes since v1:
* Move code from Yama to the FS subsystem (suggested by Kees Cook).
* Make omayexec_inode_permission() static (suggested by Jann Horn).
* Use mode 0600 for the sysctl.
* Only match regular files (not directories nor other types), which
  follows the same semantic as commit 73601ea5b7b1 ("fs/open.c: allow
  opening only regular files during execve()").
---
 Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst | 45 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
 fs/namei.c                              | 29 +++++++++++++---
 include/linux/fs.h                      |  1 +
 kernel/sysctl.c                         | 12 +++++--
 4 files changed, 80 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

Comments

Randy Dunlap July 14, 2020, 6:40 p.m. UTC | #1
Hi,

On 7/14/20 11:16 AM, Mickaël Salaün wrote:

> ---
>  Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst | 45 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  fs/namei.c                              | 29 +++++++++++++---
>  include/linux/fs.h                      |  1 +
>  kernel/sysctl.c                         | 12 +++++--
>  4 files changed, 80 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
> index 2a45119e3331..02ec384b8bbf 100644
> --- a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst

Reviewed-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>

with one tiny nit:

> @@ -165,6 +166,50 @@ system needs to prune the inode list instead of allocating
> +The ability to restrict code execution must be thought as a system-wide policy,
> +which first starts by restricting mount points with the ``noexec`` option.
> +This option is also automatically applied to special filesystems such as /proc
> +.  This prevents files on such mount points to be directly executed by the

Can you move that period from the beginning of the line to the end of the
previous line?

> +kernel or mapped as executable memory (e.g. libraries).  With script
> +interpreters using the ``O_MAYEXEC`` flag, the executable permission can then
> +be checked before reading commands from files. This makes it possible to
> +enforce the ``noexec`` at the interpreter level, and thus propagates this
> +security policy to scripts.  To be fully effective, these interpreters also
> +need to handle the other ways to execute code: command line parameters (e.g.,
> +option ``-e`` for Perl), module loading (e.g., option ``-m`` for Python),
> +stdin, file sourcing, environment variables, configuration files, etc.
> +According to the threat model, it may be acceptable to allow some script
> +interpreters (e.g. Bash) to interpret commands from stdin, may it be a TTY or a
> +pipe, because it may not be enough to (directly) perform syscalls.

thanks.
Kees Cook July 15, 2020, 8:37 p.m. UTC | #2
On Tue, Jul 14, 2020 at 08:16:36PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> @@ -2849,7 +2855,7 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
>  	case S_IFLNK:
>  		return -ELOOP;
>  	case S_IFDIR:
> -		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC))
> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
>  			return -EISDIR;
>  		break;

(I need to figure out where "open for reading" rejects S_IFDIR, since
it's clearly not here...)

>  	case S_IFBLK:
> @@ -2859,13 +2865,26 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
>  		fallthrough;
>  	case S_IFIFO:
>  	case S_IFSOCK:
> -		if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
>  			return -EACCES;
>  		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
>  		break;

This will immediately break a system that runs code with MAY_OPENEXEC
set but reads from a block, char, fifo, or socket, even in the case of
a sysadmin leaving the "file" sysctl disabled.

>  	case S_IFREG:
> -		if ((acc_mode & MAY_EXEC) && path_noexec(path))
> -			return -EACCES;
> +		if (path_noexec(path)) {
> +			if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
> +				return -EACCES;
> +			if ((acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) &&
> +					(sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT))
> +				return -EACCES;
> +		}
> +		if ((acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) &&
> +				(sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE))
> +			/*
> +			 * Because acc_mode may change here, the next and only
> +			 * use of acc_mode should then be by the following call
> +			 * to inode_permission().
> +			 */
> +			acc_mode |= MAY_EXEC;
>  		break;
>  	}

Likely very minor, but I'd like to avoid the path_noexec() call in the
fast-path (it dereferences a couple pointers where as doing bit tests on
acc_mode is fast).

Given that and the above observations, I think that may_open() likely
needs to start with:

	if (acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) {
		/* Reject all file types when mount enforcement set. */
		if ((sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT) &&
		    path_noexec(path))
			return -EACCES;
		/* Treat the same as MAY_EXEC. */
		if (sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE))
			acc_mode |= MAY_EXEC;
	}

(Though I'm not 100% sure that path_noexec() is safe to be called for
all file types: i.e. path->mnt and path->-mnt->mnt_sb *always* non-NULL?)

This change would also imply that OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE *includes*
OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT (i.e. the sysctl should not be a bitfield),
since path_noexec() would get checked for S_ISREG. I can't come up with
a rationale where one would want OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE but _not_
OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT?

(I can absolutely see wanting only OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT, or
suddenly one has to go mark every loaded thing with the exec bit and
most distros haven't done this to, for example, shared libraries. But
setting the exec bit and then NOT wanting to enforce the mount check
seems... not sensible?)

Outside of this change, yes, I like this now -- it's much cleaner
because we have all the checks in the same place where they belong. :)

> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c
> index db1ce7af2563..5008a2566e79 100644
> --- a/kernel/sysctl.c
> +++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
> @@ -113,6 +113,7 @@ static int sixty = 60;
>  
>  static int __maybe_unused neg_one = -1;
>  static int __maybe_unused two = 2;
> +static int __maybe_unused three = 3;
>  static int __maybe_unused four = 4;
>  static unsigned long zero_ul;
>  static unsigned long one_ul = 1;

Oh, are these still here? I thought they got removed (or at least made
const). Where did that series go? Hmpf, see sysctl_vals, but yes, for
now, this is fine.

> @@ -888,7 +889,6 @@ static int proc_taint(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>  	return err;
>  }
>  
> -#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
>  static int proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>  				void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
>  {
> @@ -897,7 +897,6 @@ static int proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>  
>  	return proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
>  }
> -#endif
>  
>  /**
>   * struct do_proc_dointvec_minmax_conv_param - proc_dointvec_minmax() range checking structure
> @@ -3264,6 +3263,15 @@ static struct ctl_table fs_table[] = {
>  		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
>  		.extra2		= &two,
>  	},
> +	{
> +		.procname       = "open_mayexec_enforce",
> +		.data           = &sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce,
> +		.maxlen         = sizeof(int),
> +		.mode           = 0600,
> +		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin,
> +		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
> +		.extra2		= &three,
> +	},
>  #if defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC) || defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC_MODULE)
>  	{
>  		.procname	= "binfmt_misc",
> -- 
> 2.27.0
>
Mickaël Salaün July 16, 2020, 2:39 p.m. UTC | #3
On 15/07/2020 22:37, Kees Cook wrote:
> On Tue, Jul 14, 2020 at 08:16:36PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
>> @@ -2849,7 +2855,7 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
>>  	case S_IFLNK:
>>  		return -ELOOP;
>>  	case S_IFDIR:
>> -		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC))
>> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
>>  			return -EISDIR;
>>  		break;
> 
> (I need to figure out where "open for reading" rejects S_IFDIR, since
> it's clearly not here...)
> 
>>  	case S_IFBLK:
>> @@ -2859,13 +2865,26 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
>>  		fallthrough;
>>  	case S_IFIFO:
>>  	case S_IFSOCK:
>> -		if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
>> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
>>  			return -EACCES;
>>  		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
>>  		break;
> 
> This will immediately break a system that runs code with MAY_OPENEXEC
> set but reads from a block, char, fifo, or socket, even in the case of
> a sysadmin leaving the "file" sysctl disabled.

As documented, O_MAYEXEC is for regular files. The only legitimate use
case seems to be with pipes, which should probably be allowed when
enforcement is disabled.

> 
>>  	case S_IFREG:
>> -		if ((acc_mode & MAY_EXEC) && path_noexec(path))
>> -			return -EACCES;
>> +		if (path_noexec(path)) {
>> +			if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
>> +				return -EACCES;
>> +			if ((acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) &&
>> +					(sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT))
>> +				return -EACCES;
>> +		}
>> +		if ((acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) &&
>> +				(sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE))
>> +			/*
>> +			 * Because acc_mode may change here, the next and only
>> +			 * use of acc_mode should then be by the following call
>> +			 * to inode_permission().
>> +			 */
>> +			acc_mode |= MAY_EXEC;
>>  		break;
>>  	}
> 
> Likely very minor, but I'd like to avoid the path_noexec() call in the
> fast-path (it dereferences a couple pointers where as doing bit tests on
> acc_mode is fast).
> 
> Given that and the above observations, I think that may_open() likely
> needs to start with:
> 
> 	if (acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) {
> 		/* Reject all file types when mount enforcement set. */
> 		if ((sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT) &&
> 		    path_noexec(path))
> 			return -EACCES;
> 		/* Treat the same as MAY_EXEC. */
> 		if (sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE))
> 			acc_mode |= MAY_EXEC;
> 	}

OK

> 
> (Though I'm not 100% sure that path_noexec() is safe to be called for
> all file types: i.e. path->mnt and path->-mnt->mnt_sb *always* non-NULL?)

path->mnt should always be non-NULL:
https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20200317164709.GA23230@ZenIV.linux.org.uk/

> 
> This change would also imply that OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE *includes*
> OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT (i.e. the sysctl should not be a bitfield),
> since path_noexec() would get checked for S_ISREG. I can't come up with
> a rationale where one would want OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE but _not_
> OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT?

I don't see why it is an inclusion.

> 
> (I can absolutely see wanting only OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT, or
> suddenly one has to go mark every loaded thing with the exec bit and
> most distros haven't done this to, for example, shared libraries. But
> setting the exec bit and then NOT wanting to enforce the mount check
> seems... not sensible?)
> 
> Outside of this change, yes, I like this now -- it's much cleaner
> because we have all the checks in the same place where they belong. :)
> 
>> diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c
>> index db1ce7af2563..5008a2566e79 100644
>> --- a/kernel/sysctl.c
>> +++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
>> @@ -113,6 +113,7 @@ static int sixty = 60;
>>  
>>  static int __maybe_unused neg_one = -1;
>>  static int __maybe_unused two = 2;
>> +static int __maybe_unused three = 3;
>>  static int __maybe_unused four = 4;
>>  static unsigned long zero_ul;
>>  static unsigned long one_ul = 1;
> 
> Oh, are these still here? I thought they got removed (or at least made
> const). Where did that series go? Hmpf, see sysctl_vals, but yes, for
> now, this is fine.
> 
>> @@ -888,7 +889,6 @@ static int proc_taint(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>>  	return err;
>>  }
>>  
>> -#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
>>  static int proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>>  				void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
>>  {
>> @@ -897,7 +897,6 @@ static int proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
>>  
>>  	return proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
>>  }
>> -#endif
>>  
>>  /**
>>   * struct do_proc_dointvec_minmax_conv_param - proc_dointvec_minmax() range checking structure
>> @@ -3264,6 +3263,15 @@ static struct ctl_table fs_table[] = {
>>  		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
>>  		.extra2		= &two,
>>  	},
>> +	{
>> +		.procname       = "open_mayexec_enforce",
>> +		.data           = &sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce,
>> +		.maxlen         = sizeof(int),
>> +		.mode           = 0600,
>> +		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin,
>> +		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
>> +		.extra2		= &three,
>> +	},
>>  #if defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC) || defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC_MODULE)
>>  	{
>>  		.procname	= "binfmt_misc",
>> -- 
>> 2.27.0
>>
>
Mickaël Salaün July 16, 2020, 2:40 p.m. UTC | #4
On 14/07/2020 20:40, Randy Dunlap wrote:
> Hi,
> 
> On 7/14/20 11:16 AM, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> 
>> ---
>>  Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst | 45 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>  fs/namei.c                              | 29 +++++++++++++---
>>  include/linux/fs.h                      |  1 +
>>  kernel/sysctl.c                         | 12 +++++--
>>  4 files changed, 80 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
>> index 2a45119e3331..02ec384b8bbf 100644
>> --- a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
>> +++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
> 
> Reviewed-by: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org>
> 
> with one tiny nit:
> 
>> @@ -165,6 +166,50 @@ system needs to prune the inode list instead of allocating
>> +The ability to restrict code execution must be thought as a system-wide policy,
>> +which first starts by restricting mount points with the ``noexec`` option.
>> +This option is also automatically applied to special filesystems such as /proc
>> +.  This prevents files on such mount points to be directly executed by the
> 
> Can you move that period from the beginning of the line to the end of the
> previous line?

OK, done. Thanks!

> 
>> +kernel or mapped as executable memory (e.g. libraries).  With script
>> +interpreters using the ``O_MAYEXEC`` flag, the executable permission can then
>> +be checked before reading commands from files. This makes it possible to
>> +enforce the ``noexec`` at the interpreter level, and thus propagates this
>> +security policy to scripts.  To be fully effective, these interpreters also
>> +need to handle the other ways to execute code: command line parameters (e.g.,
>> +option ``-e`` for Perl), module loading (e.g., option ``-m`` for Python),
>> +stdin, file sourcing, environment variables, configuration files, etc.
>> +According to the threat model, it may be acceptable to allow some script
>> +interpreters (e.g. Bash) to interpret commands from stdin, may it be a TTY or a
>> +pipe, because it may not be enough to (directly) perform syscalls.
> 
> thanks.
>
Thibaut Sautereau July 22, 2020, 4:16 p.m. UTC | #5
On Thu, Jul 16, 2020 at 04:39:14PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> 
> On 15/07/2020 22:37, Kees Cook wrote:
> > On Tue, Jul 14, 2020 at 08:16:36PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> >> @@ -2849,7 +2855,7 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
> >>  	case S_IFLNK:
> >>  		return -ELOOP;
> >>  	case S_IFDIR:
> >> -		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC))
> >> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
> >>  			return -EISDIR;
> >>  		break;
> > 
> > (I need to figure out where "open for reading" rejects S_IFDIR, since
> > it's clearly not here...)

Doesn't it come from generic_read_dir() in fs/libfs.c?

> > 
> >>  	case S_IFBLK:
> >> @@ -2859,13 +2865,26 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
> >>  		fallthrough;
> >>  	case S_IFIFO:
> >>  	case S_IFSOCK:
> >> -		if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
> >> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
> >>  			return -EACCES;
> >>  		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
> >>  		break;
> > 
> > This will immediately break a system that runs code with MAY_OPENEXEC
> > set but reads from a block, char, fifo, or socket, even in the case of
> > a sysadmin leaving the "file" sysctl disabled.
> 
> As documented, O_MAYEXEC is for regular files. The only legitimate use
> case seems to be with pipes, which should probably be allowed when
> enforcement is disabled.

By the way Kees, while we fix that for the next series, do you think it
would be relevant, at least for the sake of clarity, to add a
WARN_ON_ONCE(acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) for the S_IFSOCK case, since a
socket cannot be open anyway?
Mickaël Salaün July 22, 2020, 7:04 p.m. UTC | #6
On 22/07/2020 18:16, Thibaut Sautereau wrote:
> On Thu, Jul 16, 2020 at 04:39:14PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
>>
>> On 15/07/2020 22:37, Kees Cook wrote:
>>> On Tue, Jul 14, 2020 at 08:16:36PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
>>>> @@ -2849,7 +2855,7 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
>>>>  	case S_IFLNK:
>>>>  		return -ELOOP;
>>>>  	case S_IFDIR:
>>>> -		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC))
>>>> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
>>>>  			return -EISDIR;
>>>>  		break;
>>>
>>> (I need to figure out where "open for reading" rejects S_IFDIR, since
>>> it's clearly not here...)
> 
> Doesn't it come from generic_read_dir() in fs/libfs.c?
> 
>>>
>>>>  	case S_IFBLK:
>>>> @@ -2859,13 +2865,26 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
>>>>  		fallthrough;
>>>>  	case S_IFIFO:
>>>>  	case S_IFSOCK:
>>>> -		if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
>>>> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
>>>>  			return -EACCES;
>>>>  		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
>>>>  		break;
>>>
>>> This will immediately break a system that runs code with MAY_OPENEXEC
>>> set but reads from a block, char, fifo, or socket, even in the case of
>>> a sysadmin leaving the "file" sysctl disabled.
>>
>> As documented, O_MAYEXEC is for regular files. The only legitimate use
>> case seems to be with pipes, which should probably be allowed when
>> enforcement is disabled.
> 
> By the way Kees, while we fix that for the next series, do you think it
> would be relevant, at least for the sake of clarity, to add a
> WARN_ON_ONCE(acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) for the S_IFSOCK case, since a
> socket cannot be open anyway?
> 

We just did some more tests (for the next patch series) and it turns out
that may_open() can return EACCES before another part returns ENXIO.

As a reminder, the next series will deny access to block devices,
character devices, fifo and socket when opened with O_MAYEXEC *and* if
any policy is enforced (via the sysctl).

The question is then: do we prefer to return EACCES when a policy is
enforced (on a socket), or do we stick to the ENXIO? The EACCES approach
will be more consistent with devices and fifo handling, and seems safer
(belt and suspenders) thought.
Kees Cook July 22, 2020, 7:40 p.m. UTC | #7
On Wed, Jul 22, 2020 at 09:04:28PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> 
> On 22/07/2020 18:16, Thibaut Sautereau wrote:
> > On Thu, Jul 16, 2020 at 04:39:14PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> >>
> >> On 15/07/2020 22:37, Kees Cook wrote:
> >>> On Tue, Jul 14, 2020 at 08:16:36PM +0200, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
> >>>> @@ -2849,7 +2855,7 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
> >>>>  	case S_IFLNK:
> >>>>  		return -ELOOP;
> >>>>  	case S_IFDIR:
> >>>> -		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC))
> >>>> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
> >>>>  			return -EISDIR;
> >>>>  		break;
> >>>
> >>> (I need to figure out where "open for reading" rejects S_IFDIR, since
> >>> it's clearly not here...)
> > 
> > Doesn't it come from generic_read_dir() in fs/libfs.c?
> > 
> >>>
> >>>>  	case S_IFBLK:
> >>>> @@ -2859,13 +2865,26 @@ static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
> >>>>  		fallthrough;
> >>>>  	case S_IFIFO:
> >>>>  	case S_IFSOCK:
> >>>> -		if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
> >>>> +		if (acc_mode & (MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
> >>>>  			return -EACCES;
> >>>>  		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
> >>>>  		break;
> >>>
> >>> This will immediately break a system that runs code with MAY_OPENEXEC
> >>> set but reads from a block, char, fifo, or socket, even in the case of
> >>> a sysadmin leaving the "file" sysctl disabled.
> >>
> >> As documented, O_MAYEXEC is for regular files. The only legitimate use
> >> case seems to be with pipes, which should probably be allowed when
> >> enforcement is disabled.
> > 
> > By the way Kees, while we fix that for the next series, do you think it
> > would be relevant, at least for the sake of clarity, to add a
> > WARN_ON_ONCE(acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) for the S_IFSOCK case, since a
> > socket cannot be open anyway?

If it's a state that userspace should never be able to reach, then yes,
I think a WARN_ON_ONCE() would be nice.

> We just did some more tests (for the next patch series) and it turns out
> that may_open() can return EACCES before another part returns ENXIO.
> 
> As a reminder, the next series will deny access to block devices,
> character devices, fifo and socket when opened with O_MAYEXEC *and* if
> any policy is enforced (via the sysctl).
> 
> The question is then: do we prefer to return EACCES when a policy is
> enforced (on a socket), or do we stick to the ENXIO? The EACCES approach
> will be more consistent with devices and fifo handling, and seems safer
> (belt and suspenders) thought.

I think EACCES is correct for these cases, since it's a new flag, etc.

Patch
diff mbox series

diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
index 2a45119e3331..02ec384b8bbf 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/fs.rst
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@  Currently, these files are in /proc/sys/fs:
 - inode-nr
 - inode-state
 - nr_open
+- open_mayexec_enforce
 - overflowuid
 - overflowgid
 - pipe-user-pages-hard
@@ -165,6 +166,50 @@  system needs to prune the inode list instead of allocating
 more.
 
 
+open_mayexec_enforce
+--------------------
+
+While being ignored by :manpage:`open(2)` and :manpage:`openat(2)`, the
+``O_MAYEXEC`` flag can be passed to :manpage:`openat2(2)` to only open regular
+files that are expected to be executable.  If the file is not identified as
+executable, then the syscall returns -EACCES.  This may allow a script
+interpreter to check executable permission before reading commands from a file,
+or a dynamic linker to only load executable shared objects.  One interesting
+use case is to enforce a "write xor execute" policy through interpreters.
+
+The ability to restrict code execution must be thought as a system-wide policy,
+which first starts by restricting mount points with the ``noexec`` option.
+This option is also automatically applied to special filesystems such as /proc
+.  This prevents files on such mount points to be directly executed by the
+kernel or mapped as executable memory (e.g. libraries).  With script
+interpreters using the ``O_MAYEXEC`` flag, the executable permission can then
+be checked before reading commands from files. This makes it possible to
+enforce the ``noexec`` at the interpreter level, and thus propagates this
+security policy to scripts.  To be fully effective, these interpreters also
+need to handle the other ways to execute code: command line parameters (e.g.,
+option ``-e`` for Perl), module loading (e.g., option ``-m`` for Python),
+stdin, file sourcing, environment variables, configuration files, etc.
+According to the threat model, it may be acceptable to allow some script
+interpreters (e.g. Bash) to interpret commands from stdin, may it be a TTY or a
+pipe, because it may not be enough to (directly) perform syscalls.
+
+There are two complementary security policies: enforce the ``noexec`` mount
+option, and enforce executable file permission.  These policies are handled by
+the ``fs.open_mayexec_enforce`` sysctl (writable only with ``CAP_SYS_ADMIN``)
+as a bitmask:
+
+1 - Mount restriction: checks that the mount options for the underlying VFS
+    mount do not prevent execution.
+
+2 - File permission restriction: checks that the to-be-opened file is marked as
+    executable for the current process (e.g., POSIX permissions).
+
+Code samples can be found in tools/testing/selftests/openat2/omayexec_test.c
+and interpreter patches (for the original O_MAYEXEC version) may be found at
+https://github.com/clipos-archive/clipos4_portage-overlay/search?q=O_MAYEXEC .
+See also an overview article: https://lwn.net/Articles/820000/ .
+
+
 overflowgid & overflowuid
 -------------------------
 
diff --git a/fs/namei.c b/fs/namei.c
index ddc9b25540fe..9a9166e5ddd3 100644
--- a/fs/namei.c
+++ b/fs/namei.c
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@ 
 #include <linux/bitops.h>
 #include <linux/init_task.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
+#include <linux/sysctl.h>
 
 #include "internal.h"
 #include "mount.h"
@@ -425,10 +426,15 @@  static int sb_permission(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *inode, int mask)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+#define OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT	BIT(0)
+#define OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE	BIT(1)
+
+int sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce __read_mostly;
+
 /**
  * inode_permission - Check for access rights to a given inode
  * @inode: Inode to check permission on
- * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC)
+ * @mask: Right to check for (%MAY_READ, %MAY_WRITE, %MAY_EXEC, %MAY_OPENEXEC)
  *
  * Check for read/write/execute permissions on an inode.  We use fs[ug]id for
  * this, letting us set arbitrary permissions for filesystem access without
@@ -2849,7 +2855,7 @@  static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
 	case S_IFLNK:
 		return -ELOOP;
 	case S_IFDIR:
-		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC))
+		if (acc_mode & (MAY_WRITE | MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
 			return -EISDIR;
 		break;
 	case S_IFBLK:
@@ -2859,13 +2865,26 @@  static int may_open(const struct path *path, int acc_mode, int flag)
 		fallthrough;
 	case S_IFIFO:
 	case S_IFSOCK:
-		if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
+		if (acc_mode & (MAY_EXEC | MAY_OPENEXEC))
 			return -EACCES;
 		flag &= ~O_TRUNC;
 		break;
 	case S_IFREG:
-		if ((acc_mode & MAY_EXEC) && path_noexec(path))
-			return -EACCES;
+		if (path_noexec(path)) {
+			if (acc_mode & MAY_EXEC)
+				return -EACCES;
+			if ((acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) &&
+					(sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_MOUNT))
+				return -EACCES;
+		}
+		if ((acc_mode & MAY_OPENEXEC) &&
+				(sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce & OPEN_MAYEXEC_ENFORCE_FILE))
+			/*
+			 * Because acc_mode may change here, the next and only
+			 * use of acc_mode should then be by the following call
+			 * to inode_permission().
+			 */
+			acc_mode |= MAY_EXEC;
 		break;
 	}
 
diff --git a/include/linux/fs.h b/include/linux/fs.h
index 56f835c9a87a..071f37707ccc 100644
--- a/include/linux/fs.h
+++ b/include/linux/fs.h
@@ -83,6 +83,7 @@  extern int sysctl_protected_symlinks;
 extern int sysctl_protected_hardlinks;
 extern int sysctl_protected_fifos;
 extern int sysctl_protected_regular;
+extern int sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce;
 
 typedef __kernel_rwf_t rwf_t;
 
diff --git a/kernel/sysctl.c b/kernel/sysctl.c
index db1ce7af2563..5008a2566e79 100644
--- a/kernel/sysctl.c
+++ b/kernel/sysctl.c
@@ -113,6 +113,7 @@  static int sixty = 60;
 
 static int __maybe_unused neg_one = -1;
 static int __maybe_unused two = 2;
+static int __maybe_unused three = 3;
 static int __maybe_unused four = 4;
 static unsigned long zero_ul;
 static unsigned long one_ul = 1;
@@ -888,7 +889,6 @@  static int proc_taint(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
 	return err;
 }
 
-#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
 static int proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
 				void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
 {
@@ -897,7 +897,6 @@  static int proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
 
 	return proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
 }
-#endif
 
 /**
  * struct do_proc_dointvec_minmax_conv_param - proc_dointvec_minmax() range checking structure
@@ -3264,6 +3263,15 @@  static struct ctl_table fs_table[] = {
 		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
 		.extra2		= &two,
 	},
+	{
+		.procname       = "open_mayexec_enforce",
+		.data           = &sysctl_open_mayexec_enforce,
+		.maxlen         = sizeof(int),
+		.mode           = 0600,
+		.proc_handler	= proc_dointvec_minmax_sysadmin,
+		.extra1		= SYSCTL_ZERO,
+		.extra2		= &three,
+	},
 #if defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC) || defined(CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC_MODULE)
 	{
 		.procname	= "binfmt_misc",