[v2,01/17] libnvdimm: infrastructure for btt devices
diff mbox

Message ID 20150625093623.40066.71387.stgit@dwillia2-desk3.jf.intel.com
State New
Headers show

Commit Message

Dan Williams June 25, 2015, 9:36 a.m. UTC
NVDIMM namespaces, in addition to accepting "struct bio" based requests,
also have the capability to perform byte-aligned accesses.  By default
only the bio/block interface is used.  However, if another driver can
make effective use of the byte-aligned capability it can claim namespace
interface and use the byte-aligned ->rw_bytes() interface.

The BTT driver is the initial first consumer of this mechanism to allow
adding atomic sector update semantics to a pmem or blk namespace.  This
patch is the sysfs infrastructure to allow configuring a BTT instance
for a namespace.  Enabling that BTT and performing i/o is in a
subsequent patch.

Cc: Greg KH <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de>
Signed-off-by: Dan Williams <dan.j.williams@intel.com>
---
 drivers/nvdimm/Kconfig          |    3 
 drivers/nvdimm/Makefile         |    1 
 drivers/nvdimm/btt.h            |   45 ++++
 drivers/nvdimm/btt_devs.c       |  423 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 drivers/nvdimm/bus.c            |   12 +
 drivers/nvdimm/label.c          |    5 
 drivers/nvdimm/namespace_devs.c |  204 ++++++++++++++++---
 drivers/nvdimm/nd-core.h        |    4 
 drivers/nvdimm/nd.h             |   39 ++++
 drivers/nvdimm/pmem.c           |  132 ++++++++----
 drivers/nvdimm/region.c         |    8 -
 drivers/nvdimm/region_devs.c    |   38 +++-
 include/linux/nd.h              |   63 +++++-
 13 files changed, 878 insertions(+), 99 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 drivers/nvdimm/btt.h
 create mode 100644 drivers/nvdimm/btt_devs.c


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Patch
diff mbox

diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/Kconfig b/drivers/nvdimm/Kconfig
index 07a29113b870..5680e8e7a7aa 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/Kconfig
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/Kconfig
@@ -33,4 +33,7 @@  config BLK_DEV_PMEM
 
 	  Say Y if you want to use an NVDIMM
 
+config BTT
+	def_bool y
+
 endif
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/Makefile b/drivers/nvdimm/Makefile
index abce98f87f16..6085b4bd7312 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/Makefile
@@ -11,3 +11,4 @@  libnvdimm-y += region_devs.o
 libnvdimm-y += region.o
 libnvdimm-y += namespace_devs.o
 libnvdimm-y += label.o
+libnvdimm-$(CONFIG_BTT) += btt_devs.o
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/btt.h b/drivers/nvdimm/btt.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e8f6d8e0ddd3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/btt.h
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@ 
+/*
+ * Block Translation Table library
+ * Copyright (c) 2014-2015, Intel Corporation.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
+ * under the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public License,
+ * version 2, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+ * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for
+ * more details.
+ */
+
+#ifndef _LINUX_BTT_H
+#define _LINUX_BTT_H
+
+#include <linux/types.h>
+
+#define BTT_SIG_LEN 16
+#define BTT_SIG "BTT_ARENA_INFO\0"
+
+struct btt_sb {
+	u8 signature[BTT_SIG_LEN];
+	u8 uuid[16];
+	u8 parent_uuid[16];
+	__le32 flags;
+	__le16 version_major;
+	__le16 version_minor;
+	__le32 external_lbasize;
+	__le32 external_nlba;
+	__le32 internal_lbasize;
+	__le32 internal_nlba;
+	__le32 nfree;
+	__le32 infosize;
+	__le64 nextoff;
+	__le64 dataoff;
+	__le64 mapoff;
+	__le64 logoff;
+	__le64 info2off;
+	u8 padding[3968];
+	__le64 checksum;
+};
+
+#endif
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/btt_devs.c b/drivers/nvdimm/btt_devs.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4636beb8b7ed
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/btt_devs.c
@@ -0,0 +1,423 @@ 
+/*
+ * Copyright(c) 2013-2015 Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public License as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
+ * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
+ * General Public License for more details.
+ */
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
+#include <linux/device.h>
+#include <linux/genhd.h>
+#include <linux/sizes.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <linux/fs.h>
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include "nd-core.h"
+#include "btt.h"
+#include "nd.h"
+
+static DEFINE_IDA(btt_ida);
+
+static void __nd_btt_detach_ndns(struct nd_btt *nd_btt)
+{
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+
+	dev_WARN_ONCE(&nd_btt->dev, !mutex_is_locked(&ndns->dev.mutex)
+			|| ndns->claim != &nd_btt->dev,
+			"%s: invalid claim\n", __func__);
+	ndns->claim = NULL;
+	nd_btt->ndns = NULL;
+	put_device(&ndns->dev);
+}
+
+static void nd_btt_detach_ndns(struct nd_btt *nd_btt)
+{
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+
+	if (!ndns)
+		return;
+	get_device(&ndns->dev);
+	device_lock(&ndns->dev);
+	__nd_btt_detach_ndns(nd_btt);
+	device_unlock(&ndns->dev);
+	put_device(&ndns->dev);
+}
+
+static bool __nd_btt_attach_ndns(struct nd_btt *nd_btt,
+		struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+	if (ndns->claim)
+		return false;
+	dev_WARN_ONCE(&nd_btt->dev, !mutex_is_locked(&ndns->dev.mutex)
+			|| nd_btt->ndns,
+			"%s: invalid claim\n", __func__);
+	ndns->claim = &nd_btt->dev;
+	nd_btt->ndns = ndns;
+	get_device(&ndns->dev);
+	return true;
+}
+
+static bool nd_btt_attach_ndns(struct nd_btt *nd_btt,
+		struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+	bool claimed;
+
+	device_lock(&ndns->dev);
+	claimed = __nd_btt_attach_ndns(nd_btt, ndns);
+	device_unlock(&ndns->dev);
+	return claimed;
+}
+
+static void nd_btt_release(struct device *dev)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+
+	dev_dbg(dev, "%s\n", __func__);
+	nd_btt_detach_ndns(nd_btt);
+	ida_simple_remove(&btt_ida, nd_btt->id);
+	kfree(nd_btt->uuid);
+	kfree(nd_btt);
+}
+
+static struct device_type nd_btt_device_type = {
+	.name = "nd_btt",
+	.release = nd_btt_release,
+};
+
+bool is_nd_btt(struct device *dev)
+{
+	return dev->type == &nd_btt_device_type;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(is_nd_btt);
+
+struct nd_btt *to_nd_btt(struct device *dev)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = container_of(dev, struct nd_btt, dev);
+
+	WARN_ON(!is_nd_btt(dev));
+	return nd_btt;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(to_nd_btt);
+
+static const unsigned long btt_lbasize_supported[] = { 512, 4096, 0 };
+
+static ssize_t sector_size_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+
+	return nd_sector_size_show(nd_btt->lbasize, btt_lbasize_supported, buf);
+}
+
+static ssize_t sector_size_store(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t len)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+	ssize_t rc;
+
+	device_lock(dev);
+	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
+	rc = nd_sector_size_store(dev, buf, &nd_btt->lbasize,
+			btt_lbasize_supported);
+	dev_dbg(dev, "%s: result: %zd wrote: %s%s", __func__,
+			rc, buf, buf[len - 1] == '\n' ? "" : "\n");
+	nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
+	device_unlock(dev);
+
+	return rc ? rc : len;
+}
+static DEVICE_ATTR_RW(sector_size);
+
+static ssize_t uuid_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+
+	if (nd_btt->uuid)
+		return sprintf(buf, "%pUb\n", nd_btt->uuid);
+	return sprintf(buf, "\n");
+}
+
+static ssize_t uuid_store(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t len)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+	ssize_t rc;
+
+	device_lock(dev);
+	rc = nd_uuid_store(dev, &nd_btt->uuid, buf, len);
+	dev_dbg(dev, "%s: result: %zd wrote: %s%s", __func__,
+			rc, buf, buf[len - 1] == '\n' ? "" : "\n");
+	device_unlock(dev);
+
+	return rc ? rc : len;
+}
+static DEVICE_ATTR_RW(uuid);
+
+static ssize_t namespace_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+	ssize_t rc;
+
+	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
+	rc = sprintf(buf, "%s\n", nd_btt->ndns
+			? dev_name(&nd_btt->ndns->dev) : "");
+	nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
+	return rc;
+}
+
+static int namespace_match(struct device *dev, void *data)
+{
+	char *name = data;
+
+	return strcmp(name, dev_name(dev)) == 0;
+}
+
+static bool is_nd_btt_idle(struct device *dev)
+{
+	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+
+	if (nd_region->btt_seed == dev || nd_btt->ndns || dev->driver)
+		return false;
+	return true;
+}
+
+static ssize_t __namespace_store(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t len)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = to_nd_btt(dev);
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns;
+	struct device *found;
+	char *name;
+
+	if (dev->driver) {
+		dev_dbg(dev, "%s: -EBUSY\n", __func__);
+		return -EBUSY;
+	}
+
+	name = kstrndup(buf, len, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!name)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	strim(name);
+
+	if (strncmp(name, "namespace", 9) == 0 || strcmp(name, "") == 0)
+		/* pass */;
+	else {
+		len = -EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+	if (strcmp(name, "") == 0) {
+		/* detach the namespace and destroy / reset the btt device */
+		nd_btt_detach_ndns(nd_btt);
+		if (is_nd_btt_idle(dev))
+			nd_device_unregister(dev, ND_ASYNC);
+		else {
+			nd_btt->lbasize = 0;
+			kfree(nd_btt->uuid);
+			nd_btt->uuid = NULL;
+		}
+		goto out;
+	} else if (ndns) {
+		dev_dbg(dev, "namespace already set to: %s\n",
+				dev_name(&ndns->dev));
+		len = -EBUSY;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	found = device_find_child(dev->parent, name, namespace_match);
+	if (!found) {
+		dev_dbg(dev, "'%s' not found under %s\n", name,
+				dev_name(dev->parent));
+		len = -ENODEV;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	ndns = to_ndns(found);
+	if (__nvdimm_namespace_capacity(ndns) < SZ_16M) {
+		dev_dbg(dev, "%s too small to host btt\n", name);
+		len = -ENXIO;
+		goto out_attach;
+	}
+
+	WARN_ON_ONCE(!is_nvdimm_bus_locked(&nd_btt->dev));
+	if (!nd_btt_attach_ndns(nd_btt, ndns)) {
+		dev_dbg(dev, "%s already claimed\n",
+				dev_name(&ndns->dev));
+		len = -EBUSY;
+	}
+
+ out_attach:
+	put_device(&ndns->dev); /* from device_find_child */
+ out:
+	kfree(name);
+	return len;
+}
+
+static ssize_t namespace_store(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t len)
+{
+	ssize_t rc;
+
+	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
+	device_lock(dev);
+	rc = __namespace_store(dev, attr, buf, len);
+	dev_dbg(dev, "%s: result: %zd wrote: %s%s", __func__,
+			rc, buf, buf[len - 1] == '\n' ? "" : "\n");
+	device_unlock(dev);
+	nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
+
+	return rc;
+}
+static DEVICE_ATTR_RW(namespace);
+
+static struct attribute *nd_btt_attributes[] = {
+	&dev_attr_sector_size.attr,
+	&dev_attr_namespace.attr,
+	&dev_attr_uuid.attr,
+	NULL,
+};
+
+static struct attribute_group nd_btt_attribute_group = {
+	.attrs = nd_btt_attributes,
+};
+
+static const struct attribute_group *nd_btt_attribute_groups[] = {
+	&nd_btt_attribute_group,
+	&nd_device_attribute_group,
+	NULL,
+};
+
+static struct device *__nd_btt_create(struct nd_region *nd_region,
+		unsigned long lbasize, u8 *uuid,
+		struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt;
+	struct device *dev;
+
+	nd_btt = kzalloc(sizeof(*nd_btt), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!nd_btt)
+		return NULL;
+
+	nd_btt->id = ida_simple_get(&btt_ida, 0, 0, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (nd_btt->id < 0) {
+		kfree(nd_btt);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	nd_btt->lbasize = lbasize;
+	if (uuid)
+		uuid = kmemdup(uuid, 16, GFP_KERNEL);
+	nd_btt->uuid = uuid;
+	dev = &nd_btt->dev;
+	dev_set_name(dev, "btt%d", nd_btt->id);
+	dev->parent = &nd_region->dev;
+	dev->type = &nd_btt_device_type;
+	dev->groups = nd_btt_attribute_groups;
+	device_initialize(&nd_btt->dev);
+	if (ndns && !__nd_btt_attach_ndns(nd_btt, ndns)) {
+		dev_dbg(&ndns->dev, "%s failed, already claimed by %s\n",
+				__func__, dev_name(ndns->claim));
+		put_device(dev);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+	return dev;
+}
+
+struct device *nd_btt_create(struct nd_region *nd_region)
+{
+	struct device *dev = __nd_btt_create(nd_region, 0, NULL, NULL);
+
+	if (dev)
+		__nd_device_register(dev);
+	return dev;
+}
+
+/*
+ * nd_btt_sb_checksum: compute checksum for btt info block
+ *
+ * Returns a fletcher64 checksum of everything in the given info block
+ * except the last field (since that's where the checksum lives).
+ */
+u64 nd_btt_sb_checksum(struct btt_sb *btt_sb)
+{
+	u64 sum, sum_save;
+
+	sum_save = btt_sb->checksum;
+	btt_sb->checksum = 0;
+	sum = nd_fletcher64(btt_sb, sizeof(*btt_sb), 1);
+	btt_sb->checksum = sum_save;
+	return sum;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nd_btt_sb_checksum);
+
+static int __nd_btt_probe(struct nd_btt *nd_btt,
+		struct nd_namespace_common *ndns, struct btt_sb *btt_sb)
+{
+	u64 checksum;
+
+	if (!btt_sb || !ndns || !nd_btt)
+		return -ENODEV;
+
+	if (nvdimm_read_bytes(ndns, SZ_4K, btt_sb, sizeof(*btt_sb)))
+		return -ENXIO;
+
+	if (nvdimm_namespace_capacity(ndns) < SZ_16M)
+		return -ENXIO;
+
+	if (memcmp(btt_sb->signature, BTT_SIG, BTT_SIG_LEN) != 0)
+		return -ENODEV;
+
+	checksum = le64_to_cpu(btt_sb->checksum);
+	btt_sb->checksum = 0;
+	if (checksum != nd_btt_sb_checksum(btt_sb))
+		return -ENODEV;
+	btt_sb->checksum = cpu_to_le64(checksum);
+
+	nd_btt->lbasize = le32_to_cpu(btt_sb->external_lbasize);
+	nd_btt->uuid = kmemdup(btt_sb->uuid, 16, GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!nd_btt->uuid)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+
+	__nd_device_register(&nd_btt->dev);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int nd_btt_probe(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns, void *drvdata)
+{
+	int rc;
+	struct device *dev;
+	struct btt_sb *btt_sb;
+	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(ndns->dev.parent);
+
+	if (ndns->force_raw)
+		return -ENODEV;
+
+	nvdimm_bus_lock(&ndns->dev);
+	dev = __nd_btt_create(nd_region, 0, NULL, ndns);
+	nvdimm_bus_unlock(&ndns->dev);
+	if (!dev)
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	dev_set_drvdata(dev, drvdata);
+	btt_sb = kzalloc(sizeof(*btt_sb), GFP_KERNEL);
+	rc = __nd_btt_probe(to_nd_btt(dev), ndns, btt_sb);
+	kfree(btt_sb);
+	dev_dbg(&ndns->dev, "%s: btt: %s\n", __func__,
+			rc == 0 ? dev_name(dev) : "<none>");
+	if (rc < 0) {
+		__nd_btt_detach_ndns(to_nd_btt(dev));
+		put_device(dev);
+	}
+
+	return rc;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nd_btt_probe);
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/bus.c b/drivers/nvdimm/bus.c
index ca802702440e..dd12f38397db 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/bus.c
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/bus.c
@@ -14,8 +14,10 @@ 
 #include <linux/vmalloc.h>
 #include <linux/uaccess.h>
 #include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
 #include <linux/fcntl.h>
 #include <linux/async.h>
+#include <linux/genhd.h>
 #include <linux/ndctl.h>
 #include <linux/sched.h>
 #include <linux/slab.h>
@@ -103,6 +105,7 @@  static int nvdimm_bus_probe(struct device *dev)
 
 	dev_dbg(&nvdimm_bus->dev, "%s.probe(%s) = %d\n", dev->driver->name,
 			dev_name(dev), rc);
+
 	if (rc != 0)
 		module_put(provider);
 	return rc;
@@ -163,14 +166,19 @@  static void nd_async_device_unregister(void *d, async_cookie_t cookie)
 	put_device(dev);
 }
 
-void nd_device_register(struct device *dev)
+void __nd_device_register(struct device *dev)
 {
 	dev->bus = &nvdimm_bus_type;
-	device_initialize(dev);
 	get_device(dev);
 	async_schedule_domain(nd_async_device_register, dev,
 			&nd_async_domain);
 }
+
+void nd_device_register(struct device *dev)
+{
+	device_initialize(dev);
+	__nd_device_register(dev);
+}
 EXPORT_SYMBOL(nd_device_register);
 
 void nd_device_unregister(struct device *dev, enum nd_async_mode mode)
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/label.c b/drivers/nvdimm/label.c
index 34148003fc73..96526dcfdd37 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/label.c
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/label.c
@@ -666,7 +666,7 @@  static int __blk_label_update(struct nd_region *nd_region,
 
 	/* don't allow updates that consume the last label */
 	if (nfree - alloc < 0 || nfree - alloc + victims < 1) {
-		dev_info(&nsblk->dev, "insufficient label space\n");
+		dev_info(&nsblk->common.dev, "insufficient label space\n");
 		kfree(victim_map);
 		return -ENOSPC;
 	}
@@ -762,7 +762,8 @@  static int __blk_label_update(struct nd_region *nd_region,
 			continue;
 		res = to_resource(ndd, nd_label);
 		res->flags &= ~DPA_RESOURCE_ADJUSTED;
-		dev_vdbg(&nsblk->dev, "assign label[%d] slot: %d\n", l, slot);
+		dev_vdbg(&nsblk->common.dev, "assign label[%d] slot: %d\n",
+				l, slot);
 		nd_mapping->labels[l++] = nd_label;
 	}
 	nd_mapping->labels[l] = NULL;
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/namespace_devs.c b/drivers/nvdimm/namespace_devs.c
index 50b502b1908e..2c50a0719f8d 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/namespace_devs.c
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/namespace_devs.c
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@  static ssize_t __alt_name_store(struct device *dev, const char *buf,
 	} else
 		return -ENXIO;
 
-	if (dev->driver)
+	if (dev->driver || to_ndns(dev)->claim)
 		return -EBUSY;
 
 	input = kmemdup(buf, len + 1, GFP_KERNEL);
@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@  out:
 
 static resource_size_t nd_namespace_blk_size(struct nd_namespace_blk *nsblk)
 {
-	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(nsblk->dev.parent);
+	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(nsblk->common.dev.parent);
 	struct nd_mapping *nd_mapping = &nd_region->mapping[0];
 	struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd = to_ndd(nd_mapping);
 	struct nd_label_id label_id;
@@ -152,9 +152,9 @@  static resource_size_t nd_namespace_blk_size(struct nd_namespace_blk *nsblk)
 static int nd_namespace_label_update(struct nd_region *nd_region,
 		struct device *dev)
 {
-	dev_WARN_ONCE(dev, dev->driver,
+	dev_WARN_ONCE(dev, dev->driver || to_ndns(dev)->claim,
 			"namespace must be idle during label update\n");
-	if (dev->driver)
+	if (dev->driver || to_ndns(dev)->claim)
 		return 0;
 
 	/*
@@ -666,7 +666,7 @@  static ssize_t __size_store(struct device *dev, unsigned long long val)
 	u8 *uuid = NULL;
 	int rc, i;
 
-	if (dev->driver)
+	if (dev->driver || to_ndns(dev)->claim)
 		return -EBUSY;
 
 	if (is_namespace_pmem(dev)) {
@@ -733,12 +733,16 @@  static ssize_t __size_store(struct device *dev, unsigned long long val)
 		nd_namespace_pmem_set_size(nd_region, nspm,
 				val * nd_region->ndr_mappings);
 	} else if (is_namespace_blk(dev)) {
+		struct nd_namespace_blk *nsblk = to_nd_namespace_blk(dev);
+
 		/*
 		 * Try to delete the namespace if we deleted all of its
-		 * allocation and this is not the seed device for the
-		 * region.
+		 * allocation, this is not the seed device for the
+		 * region, and it is not actively claimed by a btt
+		 * instance.
 		 */
-		if (val == 0 && nd_region->ns_seed != dev)
+		if (val == 0 && nd_region->ns_seed != dev
+				&& !nsblk->common.claim)
 			nd_device_unregister(dev, ND_ASYNC);
 	}
 
@@ -789,26 +793,42 @@  static ssize_t size_store(struct device *dev,
 	return rc < 0 ? rc : len;
 }
 
-static ssize_t size_show(struct device *dev,
-		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+resource_size_t __nvdimm_namespace_capacity(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
 {
-	unsigned long long size = 0;
+	struct device *dev = &ndns->dev;
 
-	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
 	if (is_namespace_pmem(dev)) {
 		struct nd_namespace_pmem *nspm = to_nd_namespace_pmem(dev);
 
-		size = resource_size(&nspm->nsio.res);
+		return resource_size(&nspm->nsio.res);
 	} else if (is_namespace_blk(dev)) {
-		size = nd_namespace_blk_size(to_nd_namespace_blk(dev));
+		return nd_namespace_blk_size(to_nd_namespace_blk(dev));
 	} else if (is_namespace_io(dev)) {
 		struct nd_namespace_io *nsio = to_nd_namespace_io(dev);
 
-		size = resource_size(&nsio->res);
-	}
-	nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
+		return resource_size(&nsio->res);
+	} else
+		WARN_ONCE(1, "unknown namespace type\n");
+	return 0;
+}
+
+resource_size_t nvdimm_namespace_capacity(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+	resource_size_t size;
 
-	return sprintf(buf, "%llu\n", size);
+	nvdimm_bus_lock(&ndns->dev);
+	size = __nvdimm_namespace_capacity(ndns);
+	nvdimm_bus_unlock(&ndns->dev);
+
+	return size;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nvdimm_namespace_capacity);
+
+static ssize_t size_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%llu\n", (unsigned long long)
+			nvdimm_namespace_capacity(to_ndns(dev)));
 }
 static DEVICE_ATTR(size, S_IRUGO, size_show, size_store);
 
@@ -897,8 +917,8 @@  static ssize_t uuid_store(struct device *dev,
 {
 	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
 	u8 *uuid = NULL;
+	ssize_t rc = 0;
 	u8 **ns_uuid;
-	ssize_t rc;
 
 	if (is_namespace_pmem(dev)) {
 		struct nd_namespace_pmem *nspm = to_nd_namespace_pmem(dev);
@@ -914,7 +934,10 @@  static ssize_t uuid_store(struct device *dev,
 	device_lock(dev);
 	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
 	wait_nvdimm_bus_probe_idle(dev);
-	rc = nd_uuid_store(dev, &uuid, buf, len);
+	if (to_ndns(dev)->claim)
+		rc = -EBUSY;
+	if (rc >= 0)
+		rc = nd_uuid_store(dev, &uuid, buf, len);
 	if (rc >= 0)
 		rc = namespace_update_uuid(nd_region, dev, uuid, ns_uuid);
 	if (rc >= 0)
@@ -971,15 +994,18 @@  static ssize_t sector_size_store(struct device *dev,
 {
 	struct nd_namespace_blk *nsblk = to_nd_namespace_blk(dev);
 	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
-	ssize_t rc;
+	ssize_t rc = 0;
 
 	if (!is_namespace_blk(dev))
 		return -ENXIO;
 
 	device_lock(dev);
 	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
-	rc = nd_sector_size_store(dev, buf, &nsblk->lbasize,
-			ns_lbasize_supported);
+	if (to_ndns(dev)->claim)
+		rc = -EBUSY;
+	if (rc >= 0)
+		rc = nd_sector_size_store(dev, buf, &nsblk->lbasize,
+				ns_lbasize_supported);
 	if (rc >= 0)
 		rc = nd_namespace_label_update(nd_region, dev);
 	dev_dbg(dev, "%s: result: %zd %s: %s%s", __func__,
@@ -1034,12 +1060,48 @@  static ssize_t dpa_extents_show(struct device *dev,
 }
 static DEVICE_ATTR_RO(dpa_extents);
 
+static ssize_t holder_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns = to_ndns(dev);
+	ssize_t rc;
+
+	device_lock(dev);
+	rc = sprintf(buf, "%s\n", ndns->claim ? dev_name(ndns->claim) : "");
+	device_unlock(dev);
+
+	return rc;
+}
+static DEVICE_ATTR_RO(holder);
+
+static ssize_t force_raw_store(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, const char *buf, size_t len)
+{
+	bool force_raw;
+	int rc = strtobool(buf, &force_raw);
+
+	if (rc)
+		return rc;
+
+	to_ndns(dev)->force_raw = force_raw;
+	return len;
+}
+
+static ssize_t force_raw_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	return sprintf(buf, "%d\n", to_ndns(dev)->force_raw);
+}
+static DEVICE_ATTR_RW(force_raw);
+
 static struct attribute *nd_namespace_attributes[] = {
 	&dev_attr_nstype.attr,
 	&dev_attr_size.attr,
 	&dev_attr_uuid.attr,
+	&dev_attr_holder.attr,
 	&dev_attr_resource.attr,
 	&dev_attr_alt_name.attr,
+	&dev_attr_force_raw.attr,
 	&dev_attr_sector_size.attr,
 	&dev_attr_dpa_extents.attr,
 	NULL,
@@ -1066,7 +1128,9 @@  static umode_t namespace_visible(struct kobject *kobj,
 		return a->mode;
 	}
 
-	if (a == &dev_attr_nstype.attr || a == &dev_attr_size.attr)
+	if (a == &dev_attr_nstype.attr || a == &dev_attr_size.attr
+			|| a == &dev_attr_holder.attr
+			|| a == &dev_attr_force_raw.attr)
 		return a->mode;
 
 	return 0;
@@ -1083,6 +1147,66 @@  static const struct attribute_group *nd_namespace_attribute_groups[] = {
 	NULL,
 };
 
+struct nd_namespace_common *nvdimm_namespace_common_probe(struct device *dev)
+{
+	struct nd_btt *nd_btt = is_nd_btt(dev) ? to_nd_btt(dev) : NULL;
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns;
+	resource_size_t size;
+
+	if (nd_btt) {
+		ndns = nd_btt->ndns;
+		if (!ndns)
+			return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV);
+
+		/*
+		 * Flush any in-progess probes / removals in the driver
+		 * for the raw personality of this namespace.
+		 */
+		device_lock(&ndns->dev);
+		device_unlock(&ndns->dev);
+		if (ndns->dev.driver) {
+			dev_dbg(&ndns->dev, "is active, can't bind %s\n",
+					dev_name(&nd_btt->dev));
+			return ERR_PTR(-EBUSY);
+		}
+		if (dev_WARN_ONCE(&ndns->dev, ndns->claim != &nd_btt->dev,
+					"host (%s) vs claim (%s) mismatch\n",
+					dev_name(&nd_btt->dev),
+					dev_name(ndns->claim)))
+			return ERR_PTR(-ENXIO);
+	} else {
+		ndns = to_ndns(dev);
+		if (ndns->claim) {
+			dev_dbg(dev, "claimed by %s, failing probe\n",
+				dev_name(ndns->claim));
+
+			return ERR_PTR(-ENXIO);
+		}
+	}
+
+	size = nvdimm_namespace_capacity(ndns);
+	if (size < ND_MIN_NAMESPACE_SIZE) {
+		dev_dbg(&ndns->dev, "%pa, too small must be at least %#x\n",
+				&size, ND_MIN_NAMESPACE_SIZE);
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV);
+	}
+
+	if (is_namespace_pmem(&ndns->dev)) {
+		struct nd_namespace_pmem *nspm;
+
+		nspm = to_nd_namespace_pmem(&ndns->dev);
+		if (!nspm->uuid) {
+			dev_dbg(&ndns->dev, "%s: uuid not set\n", __func__);
+			return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV);
+		}
+	} else if (is_namespace_blk(&ndns->dev)) {
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENODEV); /* TODO */
+	}
+
+	return ndns;
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(nvdimm_namespace_common_probe);
+
 static struct device **create_namespace_io(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 {
 	struct nd_namespace_io *nsio;
@@ -1099,7 +1223,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_io(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 		return NULL;
 	}
 
-	dev = &nsio->dev;
+	dev = &nsio->common.dev;
 	dev->type = &namespace_io_device_type;
 	dev->parent = &nd_region->dev;
 	res = &nsio->res;
@@ -1313,7 +1437,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_pmem(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 	if (!nspm)
 		return NULL;
 
-	dev = &nspm->nsio.dev;
+	dev = &nspm->nsio.common.dev;
 	dev->type = &namespace_pmem_device_type;
 	dev->parent = &nd_region->dev;
 	res = &nspm->nsio.res;
@@ -1346,7 +1470,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_pmem(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 	return devs;
 
  err:
-	namespace_pmem_release(&nspm->nsio.dev);
+	namespace_pmem_release(&nspm->nsio.common.dev);
 	return NULL;
 }
 
@@ -1385,7 +1509,7 @@  static struct device *nd_namespace_blk_create(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 	if (!nsblk)
 		return NULL;
 
-	dev = &nsblk->dev;
+	dev = &nsblk->common.dev;
 	dev->type = &namespace_blk_device_type;
 	nsblk->id = ida_simple_get(&nd_region->ns_ida, 0, 0, GFP_KERNEL);
 	if (nsblk->id < 0) {
@@ -1396,7 +1520,7 @@  static struct device *nd_namespace_blk_create(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 	dev->parent = &nd_region->dev;
 	dev->groups = nd_namespace_attribute_groups;
 
-	return &nsblk->dev;
+	return &nsblk->common.dev;
 }
 
 void nd_region_create_blk_seed(struct nd_region *nd_region)
@@ -1413,6 +1537,18 @@  void nd_region_create_blk_seed(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 		nd_device_register(nd_region->ns_seed);
 }
 
+void nd_region_create_btt_seed(struct nd_region *nd_region)
+{
+	WARN_ON(!is_nvdimm_bus_locked(&nd_region->dev));
+	nd_region->btt_seed = nd_btt_create(nd_region);
+	/*
+	 * Seed creation failures are not fatal, provisioning is simply
+	 * disabled until memory becomes available
+	 */
+	if (!nd_region->btt_seed)
+		dev_err(&nd_region->dev, "failed to create btt namespace\n");
+}
+
 static struct device **create_namespace_blk(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 {
 	struct nd_mapping *nd_mapping = &nd_region->mapping[0];
@@ -1446,7 +1582,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_blk(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 				if (!res)
 					goto err;
 				nd_dbg_dpa(nd_region, ndd, res, "%s assign\n",
-					dev_name(&nsblk->dev));
+					dev_name(&nsblk->common.dev));
 				break;
 			}
 		}
@@ -1462,7 +1598,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_blk(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 		nsblk = kzalloc(sizeof(*nsblk), GFP_KERNEL);
 		if (!nsblk)
 			goto err;
-		dev = &nsblk->dev;
+		dev = &nsblk->common.dev;
 		dev->type = &namespace_blk_device_type;
 		dev->parent = &nd_region->dev;
 		dev_set_name(dev, "namespace%d.%d", nd_region->id, count);
@@ -1482,7 +1618,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_blk(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 		if (!res)
 			goto err;
 		nd_dbg_dpa(nd_region, ndd, res, "%s assign\n",
-				dev_name(&nsblk->dev));
+				dev_name(&nsblk->common.dev));
 	}
 
 	dev_dbg(&nd_region->dev, "%s: discovered %d blk namespace%s\n",
@@ -1503,7 +1639,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_blk(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 		nsblk = kzalloc(sizeof(*nsblk), GFP_KERNEL);
 		if (!nsblk)
 			goto err;
-		dev = &nsblk->dev;
+		dev = &nsblk->common.dev;
 		dev->type = &namespace_blk_device_type;
 		dev->parent = &nd_region->dev;
 		devs[count++] = dev;
@@ -1514,7 +1650,7 @@  static struct device **create_namespace_blk(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 err:
 	for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
 		nsblk = to_nd_namespace_blk(devs[i]);
-		namespace_blk_release(&nsblk->dev);
+		namespace_blk_release(&nsblk->common.dev);
 	}
 	kfree(devs);
 	return NULL;
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/nd-core.h b/drivers/nvdimm/nd-core.h
index 78d6c51f4bac..5e6413964776 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/nd-core.h
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/nd-core.h
@@ -45,12 +45,14 @@  struct nvdimm {
 bool is_nvdimm(struct device *dev);
 bool is_nd_blk(struct device *dev);
 bool is_nd_pmem(struct device *dev);
+struct nd_btt;
 struct nvdimm_bus *walk_to_nvdimm_bus(struct device *nd_dev);
 int __init nvdimm_bus_init(void);
 void nvdimm_bus_exit(void);
 void nd_region_probe_success(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus, struct device *dev);
 struct nd_region;
 void nd_region_create_blk_seed(struct nd_region *nd_region);
+void nd_region_create_btt_seed(struct nd_region *nd_region);
 void nd_region_disable(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus, struct device *dev);
 int nvdimm_bus_create_ndctl(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus);
 void nvdimm_bus_destroy_ndctl(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus);
@@ -58,6 +60,7 @@  void nd_synchronize(void);
 int nvdimm_bus_register_dimms(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus);
 int nvdimm_bus_register_regions(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus);
 int nvdimm_bus_init_interleave_sets(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus);
+void __nd_device_register(struct device *dev);
 int nd_match_dimm(struct device *dev, void *data);
 struct nd_label_id;
 char *nd_label_gen_id(struct nd_label_id *label_id, u8 *uuid, u32 flags);
@@ -77,4 +80,5 @@  struct resource *nsblk_add_resource(struct nd_region *nd_region,
 		resource_size_t start);
 int nvdimm_num_label_slots(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd);
 void get_ndd(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd);
+resource_size_t __nvdimm_namespace_capacity(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns);
 #endif /* __ND_CORE_H__ */
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/nd.h b/drivers/nvdimm/nd.h
index bfa849617358..329e4d54969f 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/nd.h
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/nd.h
@@ -19,6 +19,10 @@ 
 #include <linux/types.h>
 #include "label.h"
 
+enum {
+	SECTOR_SHIFT = 9,
+};
+
 struct nvdimm_drvdata {
 	struct device *dev;
 	int nsindex_size;
@@ -75,6 +79,7 @@  struct nd_region {
 	struct device dev;
 	struct ida ns_ida;
 	struct device *ns_seed;
+	struct device *btt_seed;
 	u16 ndr_mappings;
 	u64 ndr_size;
 	u64 ndr_start;
@@ -94,6 +99,14 @@  static inline unsigned nd_inc_seq(unsigned seq)
 	return next[seq & 3];
 }
 
+struct nd_btt {
+	struct device dev;
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns;
+	unsigned long lbasize;
+	u8 *uuid;
+	int id;
+};
+
 enum nd_async_mode {
 	ND_SYNC,
 	ND_ASYNC,
@@ -118,6 +131,30 @@  int nvdimm_init_nsarea(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd);
 int nvdimm_init_config_data(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd);
 int nvdimm_set_config_data(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd, size_t offset,
 		void *buf, size_t len);
+struct nd_btt *to_nd_btt(struct device *dev);
+struct btt_sb;
+u64 nd_btt_sb_checksum(struct btt_sb *btt_sb);
+#if IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_BTT)
+int nd_btt_probe(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns, void *drvdata);
+bool is_nd_btt(struct device *dev);
+struct device *nd_btt_create(struct nd_region *nd_region);
+#else
+static inline nd_btt_probe(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns, void *drvdata)
+{
+	return -ENODEV;
+}
+
+static inline bool is_nd_btt(struct device *dev)
+{
+	return false;
+}
+
+static inline struct device *nd_btt_create(struct nd_region *nd_region)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+#endif
 struct nd_region *to_nd_region(struct device *dev);
 int nd_region_to_nstype(struct nd_region *nd_region);
 int nd_region_register_namespaces(struct nd_region *nd_region, int *err);
@@ -132,4 +169,6 @@  void nvdimm_free_dpa(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd, struct resource *res);
 struct resource *nvdimm_allocate_dpa(struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd,
 		struct nd_label_id *label_id, resource_size_t start,
 		resource_size_t n);
+resource_size_t nvdimm_namespace_capacity(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns);
+struct nd_namespace_common *nvdimm_namespace_common_probe(struct device *dev);
 #endif /* __ND_H__ */
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/pmem.c b/drivers/nvdimm/pmem.c
index 90902a142e35..d0c6b4bdba69 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/pmem.c
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/pmem.c
@@ -121,44 +121,61 @@  static struct pmem_device *pmem_alloc(struct device *dev,
 		struct resource *res, int id)
 {
 	struct pmem_device *pmem;
-	struct gendisk *disk;
-	int err;
 
-	err = -ENOMEM;
 	pmem = kzalloc(sizeof(*pmem), GFP_KERNEL);
 	if (!pmem)
-		goto out;
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);
 
 	pmem->phys_addr = res->start;
 	pmem->size = resource_size(res);
 
-	err = -EINVAL;
-	if (!request_mem_region(pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size, "pmem")) {
+	if (!request_mem_region(pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size, dev_name(dev))) {
 		dev_warn(dev, "could not reserve region [0x%pa:0x%zx]\n",
 				&pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size);
-		goto out_free_dev;
+		kfree(pmem);
+		return ERR_PTR(-EBUSY);
 	}
 
 	/*
 	 * Map the memory as non-cachable, as we can't write back the contents
 	 * of the CPU caches in case of a crash.
 	 */
-	err = -ENOMEM;
 	pmem->virt_addr = ioremap_nocache(pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size);
-	if (!pmem->virt_addr)
-		goto out_release_region;
+	if (!pmem->virt_addr) {
+		release_mem_region(pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size);
+		kfree(pmem);
+		return ERR_PTR(-ENXIO);
+	}
+
+	return pmem;
+}
+
+static void pmem_detach_disk(struct pmem_device *pmem)
+{
+	del_gendisk(pmem->pmem_disk);
+	put_disk(pmem->pmem_disk);
+	blk_cleanup_queue(pmem->pmem_queue);
+}
+
+static int pmem_attach_disk(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns,
+		struct pmem_device *pmem)
+{
+	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(ndns->dev.parent);
+	struct gendisk *disk;
 
 	pmem->pmem_queue = blk_alloc_queue(GFP_KERNEL);
 	if (!pmem->pmem_queue)
-		goto out_unmap;
+		return -ENOMEM;
 
 	blk_queue_make_request(pmem->pmem_queue, pmem_make_request);
 	blk_queue_max_hw_sectors(pmem->pmem_queue, 1024);
 	blk_queue_bounce_limit(pmem->pmem_queue, BLK_BOUNCE_ANY);
 
 	disk = alloc_disk(0);
-	if (!disk)
-		goto out_free_queue;
+	if (!disk) {
+		blk_cleanup_queue(pmem->pmem_queue);
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
 
 	disk->major		= pmem_major;
 	disk->first_minor	= 0;
@@ -166,32 +183,47 @@  static struct pmem_device *pmem_alloc(struct device *dev,
 	disk->private_data	= pmem;
 	disk->queue		= pmem->pmem_queue;
 	disk->flags		= GENHD_FL_EXT_DEVT;
-	sprintf(disk->disk_name, "pmem%d", id);
-	disk->driverfs_dev = dev;
+	sprintf(disk->disk_name, "pmem%d", nd_region->id);
+	disk->driverfs_dev = &ndns->dev;
 	set_capacity(disk, pmem->size >> 9);
 	pmem->pmem_disk = disk;
 
 	add_disk(disk);
 
-	return pmem;
+	return 0;
+}
 
-out_free_queue:
-	blk_cleanup_queue(pmem->pmem_queue);
-out_unmap:
-	iounmap(pmem->virt_addr);
-out_release_region:
-	release_mem_region(pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size);
-out_free_dev:
-	kfree(pmem);
-out:
-	return ERR_PTR(err);
+static int pmem_rw_bytes(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns,
+		resource_size_t offset, void *buf, size_t size, int rw)
+{
+	struct pmem_device *pmem = dev_get_drvdata(ndns->claim);
+
+	if (unlikely(offset + size > pmem->size)) {
+		dev_WARN_ONCE(&ndns->dev, 1, "request out of range\n");
+		return -EFAULT;
+	}
+
+	if (rw == READ)
+		memcpy(buf, pmem->virt_addr + offset, size);
+	else
+		memcpy(pmem->virt_addr + offset, buf, size);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int nvdimm_namespace_attach_btt(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+	/* TODO */
+	return -ENXIO;
+}
+
+static void nvdimm_namespace_detach_btt(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns)
+{
+	/* TODO */
 }
 
 static void pmem_free(struct pmem_device *pmem)
 {
-	del_gendisk(pmem->pmem_disk);
-	put_disk(pmem->pmem_disk);
-	blk_cleanup_queue(pmem->pmem_queue);
 	iounmap(pmem->virt_addr);
 	release_mem_region(pmem->phys_addr, pmem->size);
 	kfree(pmem);
@@ -200,40 +232,44 @@  static void pmem_free(struct pmem_device *pmem)
 static int nd_pmem_probe(struct device *dev)
 {
 	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
-	struct nd_namespace_io *nsio = to_nd_namespace_io(dev);
+	struct nd_namespace_common *ndns;
+	struct nd_namespace_io *nsio;
 	struct pmem_device *pmem;
+	int rc;
 
-	if (resource_size(&nsio->res) < ND_MIN_NAMESPACE_SIZE) {
-		resource_size_t size = resource_size(&nsio->res);
-
-		dev_dbg(dev, "%s: size: %pa, too small must be at least %#x\n",
-				__func__, &size, ND_MIN_NAMESPACE_SIZE);
-		return -ENODEV;
-	}
-
-	if (nd_region_to_nstype(nd_region) == ND_DEVICE_NAMESPACE_PMEM) {
-		struct nd_namespace_pmem *nspm = to_nd_namespace_pmem(dev);
-
-		if (!nspm->uuid) {
-			dev_dbg(dev, "%s: uuid not set\n", __func__);
-			return -ENODEV;
-		}
-	}
+	ndns = nvdimm_namespace_common_probe(dev);
+	if (IS_ERR(ndns))
+		return PTR_ERR(ndns);
 
+	nsio = to_nd_namespace_io(&ndns->dev);
 	pmem = pmem_alloc(dev, &nsio->res, nd_region->id);
 	if (IS_ERR(pmem))
 		return PTR_ERR(pmem);
 
 	dev_set_drvdata(dev, pmem);
-
-	return 0;
+	ndns->rw_bytes = pmem_rw_bytes;
+	if (is_nd_btt(dev))
+		rc = nvdimm_namespace_attach_btt(ndns);
+	else if (nd_btt_probe(ndns, pmem) == 0) {
+		/* we'll come back as btt-pmem */
+		rc = -ENXIO;
+	} else
+		rc = pmem_attach_disk(ndns, pmem);
+	if (rc)
+		pmem_free(pmem);
+	return rc;
 }
 
 static int nd_pmem_remove(struct device *dev)
 {
 	struct pmem_device *pmem = dev_get_drvdata(dev);
 
+	if (is_nd_btt(dev))
+		nvdimm_namespace_detach_btt(to_nd_btt(dev)->ndns);
+	else
+		pmem_detach_disk(pmem);
 	pmem_free(pmem);
+
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/region.c b/drivers/nvdimm/region.c
index 9aba44e483e0..2a5f3f53d79d 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/region.c
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/region.c
@@ -33,12 +33,13 @@  static int nd_region_probe(struct device *dev)
 	num_ns->count = rc + err;
 	dev_set_drvdata(dev, num_ns);
 
+	if (rc && err && rc == err)
+		return -ENODEV;
+
+	nd_region->btt_seed = nd_btt_create(nd_region);
 	if (err == 0)
 		return 0;
 
-	if (rc == err)
-		return -ENODEV;
-
 	/*
 	 * Given multiple namespaces per region, we do not want to
 	 * disable all the successfully registered peer namespaces upon
@@ -66,6 +67,7 @@  static int nd_region_remove(struct device *dev)
 	/* flush attribute readers and disable */
 	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
 	nd_region->ns_seed = NULL;
+	nd_region->btt_seed = NULL;
 	dev_set_drvdata(dev, NULL);
 	nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
 
diff --git a/drivers/nvdimm/region_devs.c b/drivers/nvdimm/region_devs.c
index ac21ce419beb..f4cc1d848156 100644
--- a/drivers/nvdimm/region_devs.c
+++ b/drivers/nvdimm/region_devs.c
@@ -296,10 +296,28 @@  static ssize_t namespace_seed_show(struct device *dev,
 }
 static DEVICE_ATTR_RO(namespace_seed);
 
+static ssize_t btt_seed_show(struct device *dev,
+		struct device_attribute *attr, char *buf)
+{
+	struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev);
+	ssize_t rc;
+
+	nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
+	if (nd_region->btt_seed)
+		rc = sprintf(buf, "%s\n", dev_name(nd_region->btt_seed));
+	else
+		rc = sprintf(buf, "\n");
+	nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
+
+	return rc;
+}
+static DEVICE_ATTR_RO(btt_seed);
+
 static struct attribute *nd_region_attributes[] = {
 	&dev_attr_size.attr,
 	&dev_attr_nstype.attr,
 	&dev_attr_mappings.attr,
+	&dev_attr_btt_seed.attr,
 	&dev_attr_set_cookie.attr,
 	&dev_attr_available_size.attr,
 	&dev_attr_namespace_seed.attr,
@@ -345,15 +363,18 @@  u64 nd_region_interleave_set_cookie(struct nd_region *nd_region)
 
 /*
  * Upon successful probe/remove, take/release a reference on the
- * associated interleave set (if present)
+ * associated interleave set (if present), and plant new btt + namespace
+ * seeds.
  */
 static void nd_region_notify_driver_action(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus,
 		struct device *dev, bool probe)
 {
+	struct nd_region *nd_region;
+
 	if (!probe && (is_nd_pmem(dev) || is_nd_blk(dev))) {
-		struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev);
 		int i;
 
+		nd_region = to_nd_region(dev);
 		for (i = 0; i < nd_region->ndr_mappings; i++) {
 			struct nd_mapping *nd_mapping = &nd_region->mapping[i];
 			struct nvdimm_drvdata *ndd = nd_mapping->ndd;
@@ -365,14 +386,21 @@  static void nd_region_notify_driver_action(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus,
 			nd_mapping->ndd = NULL;
 			atomic_dec(&nvdimm->busy);
 		}
-	} else if (dev->parent && is_nd_blk(dev->parent) && probe) {
-		struct nd_region *nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
-
+	}
+	if (dev->parent && is_nd_blk(dev->parent) && probe) {
+		nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
 		nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
 		if (nd_region->ns_seed == dev)
 			nd_region_create_blk_seed(nd_region);
 		nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
 	}
+	if (is_nd_btt(dev) && probe) {
+		nd_region = to_nd_region(dev->parent);
+		nvdimm_bus_lock(dev);
+		if (nd_region->btt_seed == dev)
+			nd_region_create_btt_seed(nd_region);
+		nvdimm_bus_unlock(dev);
+	}
 }
 
 void nd_region_probe_success(struct nvdimm_bus *nvdimm_bus, struct device *dev)
diff --git a/include/linux/nd.h b/include/linux/nd.h
index 23276ea91690..507e47c86737 100644
--- a/include/linux/nd.h
+++ b/include/linux/nd.h
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@ 
  */
 #ifndef __LINUX_ND_H__
 #define __LINUX_ND_H__
+#include <linux/fs.h>
 #include <linux/ndctl.h>
 #include <linux/device.h>
 
@@ -29,12 +30,32 @@  static inline struct nd_device_driver *to_nd_device_driver(
 };
 
 /**
+ * struct nd_namespace_common - core infrastructure of a namespace
+ * @force_raw: ignore other personalities for the namespace (e.g. btt)
+ * @dev: device model node
+ * @claim: when set a another personality has taken ownership of the namespace
+ * @rw_bytes: access the raw namespace capacity with byte-aligned transfers
+ */
+struct nd_namespace_common {
+	int force_raw;
+	struct device dev;
+	struct device *claim;
+	int (*rw_bytes)(struct nd_namespace_common *, resource_size_t offset,
+			void *buf, size_t size, int rw);
+};
+
+static inline struct nd_namespace_common *to_ndns(struct device *dev)
+{
+	return container_of(dev, struct nd_namespace_common, dev);
+}
+
+/**
  * struct nd_namespace_io - infrastructure for loading an nd_pmem instance
  * @dev: namespace device created by the nd region driver
  * @res: struct resource conversion of a NFIT SPA table
  */
 struct nd_namespace_io {
-	struct device dev;
+	struct nd_namespace_common common;
 	struct resource res;
 };
 
@@ -52,7 +73,6 @@  struct nd_namespace_pmem {
 
 /**
  * struct nd_namespace_blk - namespace for dimm-bounded persistent memory
- * @dev: namespace device creation by the nd region driver
  * @alt_name: namespace name supplied in the dimm label
  * @uuid: namespace name supplied in the dimm label
  * @id: ida allocated id
@@ -61,7 +81,7 @@  struct nd_namespace_pmem {
  * @res: discontiguous dpa extents for given dimm
  */
 struct nd_namespace_blk {
-	struct device dev;
+	struct nd_namespace_common common;
 	char *alt_name;
 	u8 *uuid;
 	int id;
@@ -72,7 +92,7 @@  struct nd_namespace_blk {
 
 static inline struct nd_namespace_io *to_nd_namespace_io(struct device *dev)
 {
-	return container_of(dev, struct nd_namespace_io, dev);
+	return container_of(dev, struct nd_namespace_io, common.dev);
 }
 
 static inline struct nd_namespace_pmem *to_nd_namespace_pmem(struct device *dev)
@@ -84,7 +104,40 @@  static inline struct nd_namespace_pmem *to_nd_namespace_pmem(struct device *dev)
 
 static inline struct nd_namespace_blk *to_nd_namespace_blk(struct device *dev)
 {
-	return container_of(dev, struct nd_namespace_blk, dev);
+	return container_of(dev, struct nd_namespace_blk, common.dev);
+}
+
+/**
+ * nvdimm_read_bytes() - synchronously read bytes from an nvdimm namespace
+ * @ndns: device to read
+ * @offset: namespace-relative starting offset
+ * @buf: buffer to fill
+ * @size: transfer length
+ *
+ * @buf is up-to-date upon return from this routine.
+ */
+static inline int nvdimm_read_bytes(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns,
+		resource_size_t offset, void *buf, size_t size)
+{
+	return ndns->rw_bytes(ndns, offset, buf, size, READ);
+}
+
+/**
+ * nvdimm_write_bytes() - synchronously write bytes to an nvdimm namespace
+ * @ndns: device to read
+ * @offset: namespace-relative starting offset
+ * @buf: buffer to drain
+ * @size: transfer length
+ *
+ * NVDIMM Namepaces disks do not implement sectors internally.  Depending on
+ * the @ndns, the contents of @buf may be in cpu cache, platform buffers,
+ * or on backing memory media upon return from this routine.  Flushing
+ * to media is handled internal to the @ndns driver, if at all.
+ */
+static inline int nvdimm_write_bytes(struct nd_namespace_common *ndns,
+		resource_size_t offset, void *buf, size_t size)
+{
+	return ndns->rw_bytes(ndns, offset, buf, size, WRITE);
 }
 
 #define MODULE_ALIAS_ND_DEVICE(type) \