[RFC,01/22] block, cfq: remove queue merging for close cooperators
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Message ID 1454364778-25179-2-git-send-email-paolo.valente@linaro.org
State New
Headers show

Commit Message

Paolo Valente Feb. 1, 2016, 10:12 p.m. UTC
From: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com>

CFQ uses a special heuristic to merge queues associated with
"cooperating" processes, i.e., processes issuing close I/O
requests. The resulting merged queues contain a much higher percentage
of sequential requests than the original queues (because queues are
ordered by the initial sectors of I/O requests). Therefore, serving the
merged queues, instead of the original ones, yields a higher
throughput. Unfortunately, this heuristic fails in merging queues
associated with processes whose I/O patterns do not interleave in a
very regular way. This is the case, e.g., for popular applications
such as KVM/QEMU. To preserve a high throughput also with the I/O
generated by these applications, CFQ uses a further mechanism:
preemption (used also for other purposes).

BFQ addresses this issue by performing queue merging with a more
reactive mechanism, called Early Queue Merge (EQM) and able to merge
queues with both regularly and irregularly interleaved I/O. So EQM
correctly handles also the I/O generated by KVM/QEMU. For this reason,
with this commit we remove the less effective CFQ heuristic, while one
of the next commits then adds EQM. In that commit, we also explain in
even more detail why the heuristic removed in this commit fails with
an irregularly interleaved I/O.

Signed-off-by: Arianna Avanzini <avanzini.arianna@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Paolo Valente <paolo.valente@linaro.org>
---
 block/cfq-iosched.c | 349 +---------------------------------------------------
 1 file changed, 4 insertions(+), 345 deletions(-)

Patch
diff mbox

diff --git a/block/cfq-iosched.c b/block/cfq-iosched.c
index 1f9093e..72def9c 100644
--- a/block/cfq-iosched.c
+++ b/block/cfq-iosched.c
@@ -332,13 +332,6 @@  struct cfq_data {
 	unsigned long workload_expires;
 	struct cfq_group *serving_group;
 
-	/*
-	 * Each priority tree is sorted by next_request position.  These
-	 * trees are used when determining if two or more queues are
-	 * interleaving requests (see cfq_close_cooperator).
-	 */
-	struct rb_root prio_trees[CFQ_PRIO_LISTS];
-
 	unsigned int busy_queues;
 	unsigned int busy_sync_queues;
 
@@ -418,8 +411,6 @@  enum cfqq_state_flags {
 	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_prio_changed,	/* task priority has changed */
 	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_slice_new,	/* no requests dispatched in slice */
 	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_sync,		/* synchronous queue */
-	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_coop,		/* cfqq is shared */
-	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_split_coop,	/* shared cfqq will be splitted */
 	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_deep,		/* sync cfqq experienced large depth */
 	CFQ_CFQQ_FLAG_wait_busy,	/* Waiting for next request */
 };
@@ -447,8 +438,6 @@  CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(idle_window);
 CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(prio_changed);
 CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(slice_new);
 CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(sync);
-CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(coop);
-CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(split_coop);
 CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(deep);
 CFQ_CFQQ_FNS(wait_busy);
 #undef CFQ_CFQQ_FNS
@@ -2274,67 +2263,6 @@  static void cfq_service_tree_add(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq,
 	cfq_group_notify_queue_add(cfqd, cfqq->cfqg);
 }
 
-static struct cfq_queue *
-cfq_prio_tree_lookup(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct rb_root *root,
-		     sector_t sector, struct rb_node **ret_parent,
-		     struct rb_node ***rb_link)
-{
-	struct rb_node **p, *parent;
-	struct cfq_queue *cfqq = NULL;
-
-	parent = NULL;
-	p = &root->rb_node;
-	while (*p) {
-		struct rb_node **n;
-
-		parent = *p;
-		cfqq = rb_entry(parent, struct cfq_queue, p_node);
-
-		/*
-		 * Sort strictly based on sector.  Smallest to the left,
-		 * largest to the right.
-		 */
-		if (sector > blk_rq_pos(cfqq->next_rq))
-			n = &(*p)->rb_right;
-		else if (sector < blk_rq_pos(cfqq->next_rq))
-			n = &(*p)->rb_left;
-		else
-			break;
-		p = n;
-		cfqq = NULL;
-	}
-
-	*ret_parent = parent;
-	if (rb_link)
-		*rb_link = p;
-	return cfqq;
-}
-
-static void cfq_prio_tree_add(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
-{
-	struct rb_node **p, *parent;
-	struct cfq_queue *__cfqq;
-
-	if (cfqq->p_root) {
-		rb_erase(&cfqq->p_node, cfqq->p_root);
-		cfqq->p_root = NULL;
-	}
-
-	if (cfq_class_idle(cfqq))
-		return;
-	if (!cfqq->next_rq)
-		return;
-
-	cfqq->p_root = &cfqd->prio_trees[cfqq->org_ioprio];
-	__cfqq = cfq_prio_tree_lookup(cfqd, cfqq->p_root,
-				      blk_rq_pos(cfqq->next_rq), &parent, &p);
-	if (!__cfqq) {
-		rb_link_node(&cfqq->p_node, parent, p);
-		rb_insert_color(&cfqq->p_node, cfqq->p_root);
-	} else
-		cfqq->p_root = NULL;
-}
-
 /*
  * Update cfqq's position in the service tree.
  */
@@ -2343,10 +2271,8 @@  static void cfq_resort_rr_list(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
 	/*
 	 * Resorting requires the cfqq to be on the RR list already.
 	 */
-	if (cfq_cfqq_on_rr(cfqq)) {
+	if (cfq_cfqq_on_rr(cfqq))
 		cfq_service_tree_add(cfqd, cfqq, 0);
-		cfq_prio_tree_add(cfqd, cfqq);
-	}
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2436,12 +2362,6 @@  static void cfq_add_rq_rb(struct request *rq)
 	prev = cfqq->next_rq;
 	cfqq->next_rq = cfq_choose_req(cfqd, cfqq->next_rq, rq, cfqd->last_position);
 
-	/*
-	 * adjust priority tree position, if ->next_rq changes
-	 */
-	if (prev != cfqq->next_rq)
-		cfq_prio_tree_add(cfqd, cfqq);
-
 	BUG_ON(!cfqq->next_rq);
 }
 
@@ -2649,15 +2569,6 @@  __cfq_slice_expired(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq,
 	cfq_clear_cfqq_wait_busy(cfqq);
 
 	/*
-	 * If this cfqq is shared between multiple processes, check to
-	 * make sure that those processes are still issuing I/Os within
-	 * the mean seek distance.  If not, it may be time to break the
-	 * queues apart again.
-	 */
-	if (cfq_cfqq_coop(cfqq) && CFQQ_SEEKY(cfqq))
-		cfq_mark_cfqq_split_coop(cfqq);
-
-	/*
 	 * store what was left of this slice, if the queue idled/timed out
 	 */
 	if (timed_out) {
@@ -2760,105 +2671,6 @@  static inline int cfq_rq_close(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq,
 	return cfq_dist_from_last(cfqd, rq) <= CFQQ_CLOSE_THR;
 }
 
-static struct cfq_queue *cfqq_close(struct cfq_data *cfqd,
-				    struct cfq_queue *cur_cfqq)
-{
-	struct rb_root *root = &cfqd->prio_trees[cur_cfqq->org_ioprio];
-	struct rb_node *parent, *node;
-	struct cfq_queue *__cfqq;
-	sector_t sector = cfqd->last_position;
-
-	if (RB_EMPTY_ROOT(root))
-		return NULL;
-
-	/*
-	 * First, if we find a request starting at the end of the last
-	 * request, choose it.
-	 */
-	__cfqq = cfq_prio_tree_lookup(cfqd, root, sector, &parent, NULL);
-	if (__cfqq)
-		return __cfqq;
-
-	/*
-	 * If the exact sector wasn't found, the parent of the NULL leaf
-	 * will contain the closest sector.
-	 */
-	__cfqq = rb_entry(parent, struct cfq_queue, p_node);
-	if (cfq_rq_close(cfqd, cur_cfqq, __cfqq->next_rq))
-		return __cfqq;
-
-	if (blk_rq_pos(__cfqq->next_rq) < sector)
-		node = rb_next(&__cfqq->p_node);
-	else
-		node = rb_prev(&__cfqq->p_node);
-	if (!node)
-		return NULL;
-
-	__cfqq = rb_entry(node, struct cfq_queue, p_node);
-	if (cfq_rq_close(cfqd, cur_cfqq, __cfqq->next_rq))
-		return __cfqq;
-
-	return NULL;
-}
-
-/*
- * cfqd - obvious
- * cur_cfqq - passed in so that we don't decide that the current queue is
- * 	      closely cooperating with itself.
- *
- * So, basically we're assuming that that cur_cfqq has dispatched at least
- * one request, and that cfqd->last_position reflects a position on the disk
- * associated with the I/O issued by cur_cfqq.  I'm not sure this is a valid
- * assumption.
- */
-static struct cfq_queue *cfq_close_cooperator(struct cfq_data *cfqd,
-					      struct cfq_queue *cur_cfqq)
-{
-	struct cfq_queue *cfqq;
-
-	if (cfq_class_idle(cur_cfqq))
-		return NULL;
-	if (!cfq_cfqq_sync(cur_cfqq))
-		return NULL;
-	if (CFQQ_SEEKY(cur_cfqq))
-		return NULL;
-
-	/*
-	 * Don't search priority tree if it's the only queue in the group.
-	 */
-	if (cur_cfqq->cfqg->nr_cfqq == 1)
-		return NULL;
-
-	/*
-	 * We should notice if some of the queues are cooperating, eg
-	 * working closely on the same area of the disk. In that case,
-	 * we can group them together and don't waste time idling.
-	 */
-	cfqq = cfqq_close(cfqd, cur_cfqq);
-	if (!cfqq)
-		return NULL;
-
-	/* If new queue belongs to different cfq_group, don't choose it */
-	if (cur_cfqq->cfqg != cfqq->cfqg)
-		return NULL;
-
-	/*
-	 * It only makes sense to merge sync queues.
-	 */
-	if (!cfq_cfqq_sync(cfqq))
-		return NULL;
-	if (CFQQ_SEEKY(cfqq))
-		return NULL;
-
-	/*
-	 * Do not merge queues of different priority classes
-	 */
-	if (cfq_class_rt(cfqq) != cfq_class_rt(cur_cfqq))
-		return NULL;
-
-	return cfqq;
-}
-
 /*
  * Determine whether we should enforce idle window for this queue.
  */
@@ -3017,61 +2829,6 @@  cfq_prio_to_maxrq(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
 	return 2 * base_rq * (IOPRIO_BE_NR - cfqq->ioprio);
 }
 
-/*
- * Must be called with the queue_lock held.
- */
-static int cfqq_process_refs(struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
-{
-	int process_refs, io_refs;
-
-	io_refs = cfqq->allocated[READ] + cfqq->allocated[WRITE];
-	process_refs = cfqq->ref - io_refs;
-	BUG_ON(process_refs < 0);
-	return process_refs;
-}
-
-static void cfq_setup_merge(struct cfq_queue *cfqq, struct cfq_queue *new_cfqq)
-{
-	int process_refs, new_process_refs;
-	struct cfq_queue *__cfqq;
-
-	/*
-	 * If there are no process references on the new_cfqq, then it is
-	 * unsafe to follow the ->new_cfqq chain as other cfqq's in the
-	 * chain may have dropped their last reference (not just their
-	 * last process reference).
-	 */
-	if (!cfqq_process_refs(new_cfqq))
-		return;
-
-	/* Avoid a circular list and skip interim queue merges */
-	while ((__cfqq = new_cfqq->new_cfqq)) {
-		if (__cfqq == cfqq)
-			return;
-		new_cfqq = __cfqq;
-	}
-
-	process_refs = cfqq_process_refs(cfqq);
-	new_process_refs = cfqq_process_refs(new_cfqq);
-	/*
-	 * If the process for the cfqq has gone away, there is no
-	 * sense in merging the queues.
-	 */
-	if (process_refs == 0 || new_process_refs == 0)
-		return;
-
-	/*
-	 * Merge in the direction of the lesser amount of work.
-	 */
-	if (new_process_refs >= process_refs) {
-		cfqq->new_cfqq = new_cfqq;
-		new_cfqq->ref += process_refs;
-	} else {
-		new_cfqq->new_cfqq = cfqq;
-		cfqq->ref += new_process_refs;
-	}
-}
-
 static enum wl_type_t cfq_choose_wl_type(struct cfq_data *cfqd,
 			struct cfq_group *cfqg, enum wl_class_t wl_class)
 {
@@ -3257,19 +3014,6 @@  static struct cfq_queue *cfq_select_queue(struct cfq_data *cfqd)
 		goto keep_queue;
 
 	/*
-	 * If another queue has a request waiting within our mean seek
-	 * distance, let it run.  The expire code will check for close
-	 * cooperators and put the close queue at the front of the service
-	 * tree.  If possible, merge the expiring queue with the new cfqq.
-	 */
-	new_cfqq = cfq_close_cooperator(cfqd, cfqq);
-	if (new_cfqq) {
-		if (!cfqq->new_cfqq)
-			cfq_setup_merge(cfqq, new_cfqq);
-		goto expire;
-	}
-
-	/*
 	 * No requests pending. If the active queue still has requests in
 	 * flight or is idling for a new request, allow either of these
 	 * conditions to happen (or time out) before selecting a new queue.
@@ -3569,27 +3313,6 @@  static void cfq_put_queue(struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
 	cfqg_put(cfqg);
 }
 
-static void cfq_put_cooperator(struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
-{
-	struct cfq_queue *__cfqq, *next;
-
-	/*
-	 * If this queue was scheduled to merge with another queue, be
-	 * sure to drop the reference taken on that queue (and others in
-	 * the merge chain).  See cfq_setup_merge and cfq_merge_cfqqs.
-	 */
-	__cfqq = cfqq->new_cfqq;
-	while (__cfqq) {
-		if (__cfqq == cfqq) {
-			WARN(1, "cfqq->new_cfqq loop detected\n");
-			break;
-		}
-		next = __cfqq->new_cfqq;
-		cfq_put_queue(__cfqq);
-		__cfqq = next;
-	}
-}
-
 static void cfq_exit_cfqq(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
 {
 	if (unlikely(cfqq == cfqd->active_queue)) {
@@ -3597,8 +3320,6 @@  static void cfq_exit_cfqq(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
 		cfq_schedule_dispatch(cfqd);
 	}
 
-	cfq_put_cooperator(cfqq);
-
 	cfq_put_queue(cfqq);
 }
 
@@ -4238,14 +3959,11 @@  static void cfq_completed_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq)
 		 * - idle-priority queues
 		 * - async queues
 		 * - queues with still some requests queued
-		 * - when there is a close cooperator
 		 */
 		if (cfq_slice_used(cfqq) || cfq_class_idle(cfqq))
 			cfq_slice_expired(cfqd, 1);
-		else if (sync && cfqq_empty &&
-			 !cfq_close_cooperator(cfqd, cfqq)) {
+		else if (sync && cfqq_empty)
 			cfq_arm_slice_timer(cfqd);
-		}
 	}
 
 	if (!cfqd->rq_in_driver)
@@ -4311,38 +4029,6 @@  static void cfq_put_request(struct request *rq)
 	}
 }
 
-static struct cfq_queue *
-cfq_merge_cfqqs(struct cfq_data *cfqd, struct cfq_io_cq *cic,
-		struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
-{
-	cfq_log_cfqq(cfqd, cfqq, "merging with queue %p", cfqq->new_cfqq);
-	cic_set_cfqq(cic, cfqq->new_cfqq, 1);
-	cfq_mark_cfqq_coop(cfqq->new_cfqq);
-	cfq_put_queue(cfqq);
-	return cic_to_cfqq(cic, 1);
-}
-
-/*
- * Returns NULL if a new cfqq should be allocated, or the old cfqq if this
- * was the last process referring to said cfqq.
- */
-static struct cfq_queue *
-split_cfqq(struct cfq_io_cq *cic, struct cfq_queue *cfqq)
-{
-	if (cfqq_process_refs(cfqq) == 1) {
-		cfqq->pid = current->pid;
-		cfq_clear_cfqq_coop(cfqq);
-		cfq_clear_cfqq_split_coop(cfqq);
-		return cfqq;
-	}
-
-	cic_set_cfqq(cic, NULL, 1);
-
-	cfq_put_cooperator(cfqq);
-
-	cfq_put_queue(cfqq);
-	return NULL;
-}
 /*
  * Allocate cfq data structures associated with this request.
  */
@@ -4360,32 +4046,13 @@  cfq_set_request(struct request_queue *q, struct request *rq, struct bio *bio,
 
 	check_ioprio_changed(cic, bio);
 	check_blkcg_changed(cic, bio);
-new_queue:
+
 	cfqq = cic_to_cfqq(cic, is_sync);
 	if (!cfqq || cfqq == &cfqd->oom_cfqq) {
 		if (cfqq)
 			cfq_put_queue(cfqq);
 		cfqq = cfq_get_queue(cfqd, is_sync, cic, bio);
 		cic_set_cfqq(cic, cfqq, is_sync);
-	} else {
-		/*
-		 * If the queue was seeky for too long, break it apart.
-		 */
-		if (cfq_cfqq_coop(cfqq) && cfq_cfqq_split_coop(cfqq)) {
-			cfq_log_cfqq(cfqd, cfqq, "breaking apart cfqq");
-			cfqq = split_cfqq(cic, cfqq);
-			if (!cfqq)
-				goto new_queue;
-		}
-
-		/*
-		 * Check to see if this queue is scheduled to merge with
-		 * another, closely cooperating queue.  The merging of
-		 * queues happens here as it must be done in process context.
-		 * The reference on new_cfqq was taken in merge_cfqqs.
-		 */
-		if (cfqq->new_cfqq)
-			cfqq = cfq_merge_cfqqs(cfqd, cic, cfqq);
 	}
 
 	cfqq->allocated[rw]++;
@@ -4499,7 +4166,7 @@  static int cfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 {
 	struct cfq_data *cfqd;
 	struct blkcg_gq *blkg __maybe_unused;
-	int i, ret;
+	int ret;
 	struct elevator_queue *eq;
 
 	eq = elevator_alloc(q, e);
@@ -4541,14 +4208,6 @@  static int cfq_init_queue(struct request_queue *q, struct elevator_type *e)
 #endif
 
 	/*
-	 * Not strictly needed (since RB_ROOT just clears the node and we
-	 * zeroed cfqd on alloc), but better be safe in case someone decides
-	 * to add magic to the rb code
-	 */
-	for (i = 0; i < CFQ_PRIO_LISTS; i++)
-		cfqd->prio_trees[i] = RB_ROOT;
-
-	/*
 	 * Our fallback cfqq if cfq_get_queue() runs into OOM issues.
 	 * Grab a permanent reference to it, so that the normal code flow
 	 * will not attempt to free it.  oom_cfqq is linked to root_group