[v4,03/12] mm: Hardened usercopy
diff mbox

Message ID 1469046427-12696-4-git-send-email-keescook@chromium.org
State New
Headers show

Commit Message

Kees Cook July 20, 2016, 8:26 p.m. UTC
This is the start of porting PAX_USERCOPY into the mainline kernel. This
is the first set of features, controlled by CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY. The
work is based on code by PaX Team and Brad Spengler, and an earlier port
from Casey Schaufler. Additional non-slab page tests are from Rik van Riel.

This patch contains the logic for validating several conditions when
performing copy_to_user() and copy_from_user() on the kernel object
being copied to/from:
- address range doesn't wrap around
- address range isn't NULL or zero-allocated (with a non-zero copy size)
- if on the slab allocator:
  - object size must be less than or equal to copy size (when check is
    implemented in the allocator, which appear in subsequent patches)
- otherwise, object must not span page allocations (excepting Reserved
  and CMA ranges)
- if on the stack
  - object must not extend before/after the current process stack
  - object must be contained by a valid stack frame (when there is
    arch/build support for identifying stack frames)
- object must not overlap with kernel text

Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Tested-by: Valdis Kletnieks <valdis.kletnieks@vt.edu>
Tested-by: Michael Ellerman <mpe@ellerman.id.au>
---
 include/linux/slab.h        |  12 ++
 include/linux/thread_info.h |  15 +++
 mm/Makefile                 |   4 +
 mm/usercopy.c               | 268 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 security/Kconfig            |  28 +++++
 5 files changed, 327 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 mm/usercopy.c

Patch
diff mbox

diff --git a/include/linux/slab.h b/include/linux/slab.h
index aeb3e6d00a66..96a16a3fb7cb 100644
--- a/include/linux/slab.h
+++ b/include/linux/slab.h
@@ -155,6 +155,18 @@  void kfree(const void *);
 void kzfree(const void *);
 size_t ksize(const void *);
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_HARDENED_USERCOPY_ALLOCATOR
+const char *__check_heap_object(const void *ptr, unsigned long n,
+				struct page *page);
+#else
+static inline const char *__check_heap_object(const void *ptr,
+					      unsigned long n,
+					      struct page *page)
+{
+	return NULL;
+}
+#endif
+
 /*
  * Some archs want to perform DMA into kmalloc caches and need a guaranteed
  * alignment larger than the alignment of a 64-bit integer.
diff --git a/include/linux/thread_info.h b/include/linux/thread_info.h
index 3d5c80b4391d..f24b99eac969 100644
--- a/include/linux/thread_info.h
+++ b/include/linux/thread_info.h
@@ -155,6 +155,21 @@  static inline int arch_within_stack_frames(const void * const stack,
 }
 #endif
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY
+extern void __check_object_size(const void *ptr, unsigned long n,
+					bool to_user);
+
+static inline void check_object_size(const void *ptr, unsigned long n,
+				     bool to_user)
+{
+	__check_object_size(ptr, n, to_user);
+}
+#else
+static inline void check_object_size(const void *ptr, unsigned long n,
+				     bool to_user)
+{ }
+#endif /* CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY */
+
 #endif	/* __KERNEL__ */
 
 #endif /* _LINUX_THREAD_INFO_H */
diff --git a/mm/Makefile b/mm/Makefile
index 78c6f7dedb83..32d37247c7e5 100644
--- a/mm/Makefile
+++ b/mm/Makefile
@@ -21,6 +21,9 @@  KCOV_INSTRUMENT_memcontrol.o := n
 KCOV_INSTRUMENT_mmzone.o := n
 KCOV_INSTRUMENT_vmstat.o := n
 
+# Since __builtin_frame_address does work as used, disable the warning.
+CFLAGS_usercopy.o += $(call cc-disable-warning, frame-address)
+
 mmu-y			:= nommu.o
 mmu-$(CONFIG_MMU)	:= gup.o highmem.o memory.o mincore.o \
 			   mlock.o mmap.o mprotect.o mremap.o msync.o rmap.o \
@@ -99,3 +102,4 @@  obj-$(CONFIG_USERFAULTFD) += userfaultfd.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_IDLE_PAGE_TRACKING) += page_idle.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_FRAME_VECTOR) += frame_vector.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGE_REF) += debug_page_ref.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY) += usercopy.o
diff --git a/mm/usercopy.c b/mm/usercopy.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8ebae91a6b55
--- /dev/null
+++ b/mm/usercopy.c
@@ -0,0 +1,268 @@ 
+/*
+ * This implements the various checks for CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY*,
+ * which are designed to protect kernel memory from needless exposure
+ * and overwrite under many unintended conditions. This code is based
+ * on PAX_USERCOPY, which is:
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2001-2016 PaX Team, Bradley Spengler, Open Source
+ * Security Inc.
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
+ * published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ */
+#define pr_fmt(fmt) KBUILD_MODNAME ": " fmt
+
+#include <linux/mm.h>
+#include <linux/slab.h>
+#include <asm/sections.h>
+
+enum {
+	BAD_STACK = -1,
+	NOT_STACK = 0,
+	GOOD_FRAME,
+	GOOD_STACK,
+};
+
+/*
+ * Checks if a given pointer and length is contained by the current
+ * stack frame (if possible).
+ *
+ * Returns:
+ *	NOT_STACK: not at all on the stack
+ *	GOOD_FRAME: fully within a valid stack frame
+ *	GOOD_STACK: fully on the stack (when can't do frame-checking)
+ *	BAD_STACK: error condition (invalid stack position or bad stack frame)
+ */
+static noinline int check_stack_object(const void *obj, unsigned long len)
+{
+	const void * const stack = task_stack_page(current);
+	const void * const stackend = stack + THREAD_SIZE;
+	int ret;
+
+	/* Object is not on the stack at all. */
+	if (obj + len <= stack || stackend <= obj)
+		return NOT_STACK;
+
+	/*
+	 * Reject: object partially overlaps the stack (passing the
+	 * the check above means at least one end is within the stack,
+	 * so if this check fails, the other end is outside the stack).
+	 */
+	if (obj < stack || stackend < obj + len)
+		return BAD_STACK;
+
+	/* Check if object is safely within a valid frame. */
+	ret = arch_within_stack_frames(stack, stackend, obj, len);
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+
+	return GOOD_STACK;
+}
+
+static void report_usercopy(const void *ptr, unsigned long len,
+			    bool to_user, const char *type)
+{
+	pr_emerg("kernel memory %s attempt detected %s %p (%s) (%lu bytes)\n",
+		to_user ? "exposure" : "overwrite",
+		to_user ? "from" : "to", ptr, type ? : "unknown", len);
+	/*
+	 * For greater effect, it would be nice to do do_group_exit(),
+	 * but BUG() actually hooks all the lock-breaking and per-arch
+	 * Oops code, so that is used here instead.
+	 */
+	BUG();
+}
+
+/* Returns true if any portion of [ptr,ptr+n) over laps with [low,high). */
+static bool overlaps(const void *ptr, unsigned long n, unsigned long low,
+		     unsigned long high)
+{
+	unsigned long check_low = (uintptr_t)ptr;
+	unsigned long check_high = check_low + n;
+
+	/* Does not overlap if entirely above or entirely below. */
+	if (check_low >= high || check_high < low)
+		return false;
+
+	return true;
+}
+
+/* Is this address range in the kernel text area? */
+static inline const char *check_kernel_text_object(const void *ptr,
+						   unsigned long n)
+{
+	unsigned long textlow = (unsigned long)_stext;
+	unsigned long texthigh = (unsigned long)_etext;
+	unsigned long textlow_linear, texthigh_linear;
+
+	if (overlaps(ptr, n, textlow, texthigh))
+		return "<kernel text>";
+
+	/*
+	 * Some architectures have virtual memory mappings with a secondary
+	 * mapping of the kernel text, i.e. there is more than one virtual
+	 * kernel address that points to the kernel image. It is usually
+	 * when there is a separate linear physical memory mapping, in that
+	 * __pa() is not just the reverse of __va(). This can be detected
+	 * and checked:
+	 */
+	textlow_linear = (unsigned long)__va(__pa(textlow));
+	/* No different mapping: we're done. */
+	if (textlow_linear == textlow)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Check the secondary mapping... */
+	texthigh_linear = (unsigned long)__va(__pa(texthigh));
+	if (overlaps(ptr, n, textlow_linear, texthigh_linear))
+		return "<linear kernel text>";
+
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline const char *check_bogus_address(const void *ptr, unsigned long n)
+{
+	/* Reject if object wraps past end of memory. */
+	if (ptr + n < ptr)
+		return "<wrapped address>";
+
+	/* Reject if NULL or ZERO-allocation. */
+	if (ZERO_OR_NULL_PTR(ptr))
+		return "<null>";
+
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline const char *check_heap_object(const void *ptr, unsigned long n,
+					    bool to_user)
+{
+	struct page *page, *endpage;
+	const void *end = ptr + n - 1;
+	bool is_reserved, is_cma;
+
+	/*
+	 * Some architectures (arm64) return true for virt_addr_valid() on
+	 * vmalloced addresses. Work around this by checking for vmalloc
+	 * first.
+	 */
+	if (is_vmalloc_addr(ptr))
+		return NULL;
+
+	if (!virt_addr_valid(ptr))
+		return NULL;
+
+	page = virt_to_head_page(ptr);
+
+	/* Check slab allocator for flags and size. */
+	if (PageSlab(page))
+		return __check_heap_object(ptr, n, page);
+
+	/*
+	 * Sometimes the kernel data regions are not marked Reserved (see
+	 * check below). And sometimes [_sdata,_edata) does not cover
+	 * rodata and/or bss, so check each range explicitly.
+	 */
+
+	/* Allow reads of kernel rodata region (if not marked as Reserved). */
+	if (ptr >= (const void *)__start_rodata &&
+	    end <= (const void *)__end_rodata) {
+		if (!to_user)
+			return "<rodata>";
+		return NULL;
+	}
+
+	/* Allow kernel data region (if not marked as Reserved). */
+	if (ptr >= (const void *)_sdata && end <= (const void *)_edata)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Allow kernel bss region (if not marked as Reserved). */
+	if (ptr >= (const void *)__bss_start &&
+	    end <= (const void *)__bss_stop)
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Is the object wholly within one base page? */
+	if (likely(((unsigned long)ptr & (unsigned long)PAGE_MASK) ==
+		   ((unsigned long)end & (unsigned long)PAGE_MASK)))
+		return NULL;
+
+	/* Allow if start and end are inside the same compound page. */
+	endpage = virt_to_head_page(end);
+	if (likely(endpage == page))
+		return NULL;
+
+	/*
+	 * Reject if range is entirely either Reserved (i.e. special or
+	 * device memory), or CMA. Otherwise, reject since the object spans
+	 * several independently allocated pages.
+	 */
+	is_reserved = PageReserved(page);
+	is_cma = is_migrate_cma_page(page);
+	if (!is_reserved && !is_cma)
+		goto reject;
+
+	for (ptr += PAGE_SIZE; ptr <= end; ptr += PAGE_SIZE) {
+		page = virt_to_head_page(ptr);
+		if (is_reserved && !PageReserved(page))
+			goto reject;
+		if (is_cma && !is_migrate_cma_page(page))
+			goto reject;
+	}
+
+	return NULL;
+
+reject:
+	return "<spans multiple pages>";
+}
+
+/*
+ * Validates that the given object is:
+ * - not bogus address
+ * - known-safe heap or stack object
+ * - not in kernel text
+ */
+void __check_object_size(const void *ptr, unsigned long n, bool to_user)
+{
+	const char *err;
+
+	/* Skip all tests if size is zero. */
+	if (!n)
+		return;
+
+	/* Check for invalid addresses. */
+	err = check_bogus_address(ptr, n);
+	if (err)
+		goto report;
+
+	/* Check for bad heap object. */
+	err = check_heap_object(ptr, n, to_user);
+	if (err)
+		goto report;
+
+	/* Check for bad stack object. */
+	switch (check_stack_object(ptr, n)) {
+	case NOT_STACK:
+		/* Object is not touching the current process stack. */
+		break;
+	case GOOD_FRAME:
+	case GOOD_STACK:
+		/*
+		 * Object is either in the correct frame (when it
+		 * is possible to check) or just generally on the
+		 * process stack (when frame checking not available).
+		 */
+		return;
+	default:
+		err = "<process stack>";
+		goto report;
+	}
+
+	/* Check for object in kernel to avoid text exposure. */
+	err = check_kernel_text_object(ptr, n);
+	if (!err)
+		return;
+
+report:
+	report_usercopy(ptr, n, to_user, err);
+}
+EXPORT_SYMBOL(__check_object_size);
diff --git a/security/Kconfig b/security/Kconfig
index 176758cdfa57..df28f2b6f3e1 100644
--- a/security/Kconfig
+++ b/security/Kconfig
@@ -118,6 +118,34 @@  config LSM_MMAP_MIN_ADDR
 	  this low address space will need the permission specific to the
 	  systems running LSM.
 
+config HAVE_HARDENED_USERCOPY_ALLOCATOR
+	bool
+	help
+	  The heap allocator implements __check_heap_object() for
+	  validating memory ranges against heap object sizes in
+	  support of CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY.
+
+config HAVE_ARCH_HARDENED_USERCOPY
+	bool
+	help
+	  The architecture supports CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY by
+	  calling check_object_size() just before performing the
+	  userspace copies in the low level implementation of
+	  copy_to_user() and copy_from_user().
+
+config HARDENED_USERCOPY
+	bool "Harden memory copies between kernel and userspace"
+	depends on HAVE_ARCH_HARDENED_USERCOPY
+	select BUG
+	help
+	  This option checks for obviously wrong memory regions when
+	  copying memory to/from the kernel (via copy_to_user() and
+	  copy_from_user() functions) by rejecting memory ranges that
+	  are larger than the specified heap object, span multiple
+	  separately allocates pages, are not on the process stack,
+	  or are part of the kernel text. This kills entire classes
+	  of heap overflow exploits and similar kernel memory exposures.
+
 source security/selinux/Kconfig
 source security/smack/Kconfig
 source security/tomoyo/Kconfig