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[v3,00/12] KVM: Add idempotent controls for migrating system counter state

Message ID 20210719184949.1385910-1-oupton@google.com (mailing list archive)
Headers show
Series KVM: Add idempotent controls for migrating system counter state | expand


Oliver Upton July 19, 2021, 6:49 p.m. UTC
KVM's current means of saving/restoring system counters is plagued with
temporal issues. At least on ARM64 and x86, we migrate the guest's
system counter by-value through the respective guest system register
values (cntvct_el0, ia32_tsc). Restoring system counters by-value is
brittle as the state is not idempotent: the host system counter is still
oscillating between the attempted save and restore. Furthermore, VMMs
may wish to transparently live migrate guest VMs, meaning that they
include the elapsed time due to live migration blackout in the guest
system counter view. The VMM thread could be preempted for any number of
reasons (scheduler, L0 hypervisor under nested) between the time that
it calculates the desired guest counter value and when KVM actually sets
this counter state.

Despite the value-based interface that we present to userspace, KVM
actually has idempotent guest controls by way of system counter offsets.
We can avoid all of the issues associated with a value-based interface
by abstracting these offset controls in new ioctls. This series
introduces new vCPU device attributes to provide userspace access to the
vCPU's system counter offset.

Patch 1 adopts Paolo's suggestion, augmenting the KVM_{GET,SET}_CLOCK
ioctls to provide userspace with a (host_tsc, realtime) instant. This is
essential for a VMM to perform precise migration of the guest's system

Patches 2-3 add support for x86 by shoehorning the new controls into the
pre-existing synchronization heuristics.

Patches 4-5 implement a test for the new additions to

Patches 6-7 implement at test for the tsc offset attribute introduced in
patch 3.

Patch 8 adds a device attribute for the arm64 virtual counter-timer

Patch 9 extends the test from patch 7 to cover the arm64 virtual
counter-timer offset.

Patch 10 adds a device attribute for the arm64 physical counter-timer
offset. Currently, this is implemented as a synthetic register, forcing
the guest to trap to the host and emulating the offset in the fast exit
path. Later down the line we will have hardware with FEAT_ECV, which
allows the hypervisor to perform physical counter-timer offsetting in
hardware (CNTPOFF_EL2).

Patch 11 extends the test from patch 7 to cover the arm64 physical
counter-timer offset.

Patch 12 introduces a benchmark to measure the overhead of emulation in
patch 10.

Physical counter benchmark

The following data was collected by running 10000 iterations of the
benchmark test from Patch 6 on an Ampere Mt. Jade reference server, A 2S
machine with 2 80-core Ampere Altra SoCs. Measurements were collected
for both VHE and nVHE operation using the `kvm-arm.mode=` command-line


|       Metric       | Native | Trapped |
| Average            | 54ns   | 148ns   |
| Standard Deviation | 124ns  | 122ns   |
| 95th Percentile    | 258ns  | 348ns   |


|       Metric       | Native | Trapped |
| Average            | 53ns   | 152ns   |
| Standard Deviation | 92ns   | 94ns    |
| 95th Percentile    | 204ns  | 307ns   |

This series applies cleanly to the following commit:

1889228d80fe ("KVM: selftests: smm_test: Test SMM enter from L2")

v1 -> v2:
  - Reimplemented as vCPU device attributes instead of a distinct ioctl.
  - Added the (realtime, host_tsc) instant support to KVM_{GET,SET}_CLOCK
  - Changed the arm64 implementation to broadcast counter
    offset values to all vCPUs in a guest. This upholds the
    architectural expectations of a consistent counter-timer across CPUs.
  - Fixed a bug with traps in VHE mode. We now configure traps on every
    transition into a guest to handle differing VMs (trapped, emulated).

v2 -> v3:
  - Added documentation for additions to KVM_{GET,SET}_CLOCK
  - Added documentation for all new vCPU attributes
  - Added documentation for suggested algorithm to migrate a guest's
  - Bug fixes throughout series

v1: https://lore.kernel.org/kvm/20210608214742.1897483-1-oupton@google.com/
v2: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210716212629.2232756-1-oupton@google.com

Oliver Upton (12):
  KVM: x86: Report host tsc and realtime values in KVM_GET_CLOCK
  KVM: x86: Refactor tsc synchronization code
  KVM: x86: Expose TSC offset controls to userspace
  tools: arch: x86: pull in pvclock headers
  selftests: KVM: Add test for KVM_{GET,SET}_CLOCK
  selftests: KVM: Add helpers for vCPU device attributes
  selftests: KVM: Introduce system counter offset test
  KVM: arm64: Allow userspace to configure a vCPU's virtual offset
  selftests: KVM: Add support for aarch64 to system_counter_offset_test
  KVM: arm64: Provide userspace access to the physical counter offset
  selftests: KVM: Test physical counter offsetting
  selftests: KVM: Add counter emulation benchmark

 Documentation/virt/kvm/api.rst                |  42 +-
 Documentation/virt/kvm/devices/vcpu.rst       | 101 +++++
 Documentation/virt/kvm/locking.rst            |  11 +
 arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_host.h             |   1 +
 arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_hyp.h              |   2 -
 arch/arm64/include/asm/sysreg.h               |   1 +
 arch/arm64/include/uapi/asm/kvm.h             |   2 +
 arch/arm64/kvm/arch_timer.c                   | 118 ++++-
 arch/arm64/kvm/arm.c                          |   4 +-
 arch/arm64/kvm/hyp/include/hyp/switch.h       |  23 +
 arch/arm64/kvm/hyp/include/hyp/timer-sr.h     |  26 ++
 arch/arm64/kvm/hyp/nvhe/switch.c              |   2 -
 arch/arm64/kvm/hyp/nvhe/timer-sr.c            |  21 +-
 arch/arm64/kvm/hyp/vhe/timer-sr.c             |  27 ++
 arch/x86/include/asm/kvm_host.h               |   4 +
 arch/x86/include/uapi/asm/kvm.h               |   4 +
 arch/x86/kvm/x86.c                            | 422 ++++++++++++++----
 include/kvm/arm_arch_timer.h                  |   2 -
 include/uapi/linux/kvm.h                      |   7 +-
 tools/arch/x86/include/asm/pvclock-abi.h      |  48 ++
 tools/arch/x86/include/asm/pvclock.h          | 103 +++++
 tools/testing/selftests/kvm/.gitignore        |   3 +
 tools/testing/selftests/kvm/Makefile          |   4 +
 .../kvm/aarch64/counter_emulation_benchmark.c | 215 +++++++++
 .../selftests/kvm/include/aarch64/processor.h |  24 +
 .../testing/selftests/kvm/include/kvm_util.h  |  11 +
 tools/testing/selftests/kvm/lib/kvm_util.c    |  38 ++
 .../kvm/system_counter_offset_test.c          | 206 +++++++++
 .../selftests/kvm/x86_64/kvm_clock_test.c     | 210 +++++++++
 29 files changed, 1549 insertions(+), 133 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kvm/hyp/include/hyp/timer-sr.h
 create mode 100644 tools/arch/x86/include/asm/pvclock-abi.h
 create mode 100644 tools/arch/x86/include/asm/pvclock.h
 create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kvm/aarch64/counter_emulation_benchmark.c
 create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kvm/system_counter_offset_test.c
 create mode 100644 tools/testing/selftests/kvm/x86_64/kvm_clock_test.c