diff mbox series

[19/19] Documentation/vm: add pin_user_pages.rst

Message ID 20191030224930.3990755-20-jhubbard@nvidia.com
State New
Headers show
Series mm/gup: track dma-pinned pages: FOLL_PIN, FOLL_LONGTERM | expand

Commit Message

John Hubbard Oct. 30, 2019, 10:49 p.m. UTC
Document the new pin_user_pages() and related calls
and behavior.

Thanks to Jan Kara and Vlastimil Babka for explaining the 4 cases
in this documentation. (I've reworded it and expanded on it slightly.)

Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Signed-off-by: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
---
 Documentation/vm/index.rst          |   1 +
 Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst | 213 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 214 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst

Comments

Ira Weiny Oct. 31, 2019, 11:49 p.m. UTC | #1
On Wed, Oct 30, 2019 at 03:49:30PM -0700, John Hubbard wrote:
> Document the new pin_user_pages() and related calls
> and behavior.
> 
> Thanks to Jan Kara and Vlastimil Babka for explaining the 4 cases
> in this documentation. (I've reworded it and expanded on it slightly.)

As I said before I think this may be better in a previous patch where you
reference it.

Ira

> 
> Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
> Signed-off-by: John Hubbard <jhubbard@nvidia.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/vm/index.rst          |   1 +
>  Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst | 213 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  2 files changed, 214 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/vm/index.rst b/Documentation/vm/index.rst
> index e8d943b21cf9..7194efa3554a 100644
> --- a/Documentation/vm/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/vm/index.rst
> @@ -44,6 +44,7 @@ descriptions of data structures and algorithms.
>     page_migration
>     page_frags
>     page_owner
> +   pin_user_pages
>     remap_file_pages
>     slub
>     split_page_table_lock
> diff --git a/Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst b/Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..7110bca3f188
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,213 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +====================================================
> +pin_user_pages() and related calls
> +====================================================
> +
> +.. contents:: :local:
> +
> +Overview
> +========
> +
> +This document describes the following functions: ::
> +
> + pin_user_pages
> + pin_user_pages_fast
> + pin_user_pages_remote
> +
> + pin_longterm_pages
> + pin_longterm_pages_fast
> + pin_longterm_pages_remote
> +
> +Basic description of FOLL_PIN
> +=============================
> +
> +A new flag for get_user_pages ("gup") has been added: FOLL_PIN. FOLL_PIN has
> +significant interactions and interdependencies with FOLL_LONGTERM, so both are
> +covered here.
> +
> +Both FOLL_PIN and FOLL_LONGTERM are "internal" to gup, meaning that neither
> +FOLL_PIN nor FOLL_LONGTERM should not appear at the gup call sites. This allows
> +the associated wrapper functions  (pin_user_pages and others) to set the correct
> +combination of these flags, and to check for problems as well.
> +
> +FOLL_PIN and FOLL_GET are mutually exclusive for a given gup call. However,
> +multiple threads and call sites are free to pin the same struct pages, via both
> +FOLL_PIN and FOLL_GET. It's just the call site that needs to choose one or the
> +other, not the struct page(s).
> +
> +The FOLL_PIN implementation is nearly the same as FOLL_GET, except that FOLL_PIN
> +uses a different reference counting technique.
> +
> +FOLL_PIN is a prerequisite to FOLL_LONGTGERM. Another way of saying that is,
> +FOLL_LONGTERM is a specific case, more restrictive case of FOLL_PIN.
> +
> +Which flags are set by each wrapper
> +===================================
> +
> +Only FOLL_PIN and FOLL_LONGTERM are covered here. These flags are added to
> +whatever flags the caller provides::
> +
> + Function                    gup flags (FOLL_PIN or FOLL_LONGTERM only)
> + --------                    ------------------------------------------
> + pin_user_pages              FOLL_PIN
> + pin_user_pages_fast         FOLL_PIN
> + pin_user_pages_remote       FOLL_PIN
> +
> + pin_longterm_pages          FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
> + pin_longterm_pages_fast     FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
> + pin_longterm_pages_remote   FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
> +
> +Tracking dma-pinned pages
> +=========================
> +
> +Some of the key design constraints, and solutions, for tracking dma-pinned
> +pages:
> +
> +* An actual reference count, per struct page, is required. This is because
> +  multiple processes may pin and unpin a page.
> +
> +* False positives (reporting that a page is dma-pinned, when in fact it is not)
> +  are acceptable, but false negatives are not.
> +
> +* struct page may not be increased in size for this, and all fields are already
> +  used.
> +
> +* Given the above, we can overload the page->_refcount field by using, sort of,
> +  the upper bits in that field for a dma-pinned count. "Sort of", means that,
> +  rather than dividing page->_refcount into bit fields, we simple add a medium-
> +  large value (GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS, initially chosen to be 1024: 10 bits) to
> +  page->_refcount. This provides fuzzy behavior: if a page has get_page() called
> +  on it 1024 times, then it will appear to have a single dma-pinned count.
> +  And again, that's acceptable.
> +
> +This also leads to limitations: there are only 32-10==22 bits available for a
> +counter that increments 10 bits at a time.
> +
> +TODO: for 1GB and larger huge pages, this is cutting it close. That's because
> +when pin_user_pages() follows such pages, it increments the head page by "1"
> +(where "1" used to mean "+1" for get_user_pages(), but now means "+1024" for
> +pin_user_pages()) for each tail page. So if you have a 1GB huge page:
> +
> +* There are 256K (18 bits) worth of 4 KB tail pages.
> +* There are 22 bits available to count up via GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS (that is,
> +  10 bits at a time)
> +* There are 22 - 18 == 4 bits available to count. Except that there aren't,
> +  because you need to allow for a few normal get_page() calls on the head page,
> +  as well. Fortunately, the approach of using addition, rather than "hard"
> +  bitfields, within page->_refcount, allows for sharing these bits gracefully.
> +  But we're still looking at about 16 references.
> +
> +This, however, is a missing feature more than anything else, because it's easily
> +solved by addressing an obvious inefficiency in the original get_user_pages()
> +approach of retrieving pages: stop treating all the pages as if they were
> +PAGE_SIZE. Retrieve huge pages as huge pages. The callers need to be aware of
> +this, so some work is required. Once that's in place, this limitation mostly
> +disappears from view, because there will be ample refcounting range available.
> +
> +* Callers must specifically request "dma-pinned tracking of pages". In other
> +  words, just calling get_user_pages() will not suffice; a new set of functions,
> +  pin_user_page() and related, must be used.
> +
> +FOLL_PIN, FOLL_GET, FOLL_LONGTERM: when to use which flags
> +==========================================================
> +
> +Thanks to Jan Kara, Vlastimil Babka and several other -mm people, for describing
> +these categories:
> +
> +CASE 1: Direct IO (DIO)
> +-----------------------
> +There are GUP references to pages that are serving
> +as DIO buffers. These buffers are needed for a relatively short time (so they
> +are not "long term"). No special synchronization with page_mkclean() or
> +munmap() is provided. Therefore, flags to set at the call site are: ::
> +
> +    FOLL_PIN
> +
> +...but rather than setting FOLL_PIN directly, call sites should use one of
> +the pin_user_pages*() routines that set FOLL_PIN.
> +
> +CASE 2: RDMA
> +------------
> +There are GUP references to pages that are serving as DMA
> +buffers. These buffers are needed for a long time ("long term"). No special
> +synchronization with page_mkclean() or munmap() is provided. Therefore, flags
> +to set at the call site are: ::
> +
> +    FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
> +
> +TODO: There is also a special case when the pages are DAX pages: in addition to
> +the above flags, the caller needs something like a layout lease on the
> +associated file. This is yet to be implemented. When it is implemented, it's
> +expected that the lease will be a prerequisite to setting FOLL_LONGTERM.

For now we probably want to leave this note out until we figure out how this is
going to work.  Best to say something like:

Some pages, such as DAX pages, can't be pinned with longterm pins and will
fail.

Ira

> +
> +CASE 3: ODP
> +-----------
> +(Mellanox/Infiniband On Demand Paging: the hardware supports
> +replayable page faulting). There are GUP references to pages serving as DMA
> +buffers. For ODP, MMU notifiers are used to synchronize with page_mkclean()
> +and munmap(). Therefore, normal GUP calls are sufficient, so neither flag
> +needs to be set.
> +
> +CASE 4: Pinning for struct page manipulation only
> +-------------------------------------------------
> +Here, normal GUP calls are sufficient, so neither flag needs to be set.
> +
> +page_dma_pinned(): the whole point of pinning
> +=============================================
> +
> +The whole point of marking pages as "DMA-pinned" or "gup-pinned" is to be able
> +to query, "is this page DMA-pinned?" That allows code such as page_mkclean()
> +(and file system writeback code in general) to make informed decisions about
> +what to do when a page cannot be unmapped due to such pins.
> +
> +What to do in those cases is the subject of a years-long series of discussions
> +and debates (see the References at the end of this document). It's a TODO item
> +here: fill in the details once that's worked out. Meanwhile, it's safe to say
> +that having this available: ::
> +
> +        static inline bool page_dma_pinned(struct page *page)
> +
> +...is a prerequisite to solving the long-running gup+DMA problem.
> +
> +Another way of thinking about FOLL_GET, FOLL_PIN, and FOLL_LONGTERM
> +===================================================================
> +
> +Another way of thinking about these flags is as a progression of restrictions:
> +FOLL_GET is for struct page manipulation, without affecting the data that the
> +struct page refers to. FOLL_PIN is a *replacement* for FOLL_GET, and is for
> +short term pins on pages whose data *will* get accessed. As such, FOLL_PIN is
> +a "more severe" form of pinning. And finally, FOLL_LONGTERM is an even more
> +restrictive case that has FOLL_PIN as a prerequisite: this is for pages that
> +will be pinned longterm, and whose data will be accessed.
> +
> +Unit testing
> +============
> +This file::
> +
> + tools/testing/selftests/vm/gup_benchmark.c
> +
> +has the following new calls to exercise the new pin*() wrapper functions:
> +
> +* PIN_FAST_BENCHMARK (./gup_benchmark -a)
> +* PIN_LONGTERM_BENCHMARK (./gup_benchmark -a)
> +* PIN_BENCHMARK (./gup_benchmark -a)
> +
> +You can monitor how many total dma-pinned pages have been acquired and released
> +since the system was booted, via two new /proc/vmstat entries: ::
> +
> +    /proc/vmstat/nr_foll_pin_requested
> +    /proc/vmstat/nr_foll_pin_requested
> +
> +Those are both going to show zero, unless CONFIG_DEBUG_VM is set. This is
> +because there is a noticeable performance drop in put_user_page(), when they
> +are activated.
> +
> +References
> +==========
> +
> +* `Some slow progress on get_user_pages() (Apr 2, 2019) <https://lwn.net/Articles/784574/>`_
> +* `DMA and get_user_pages() (LPC: Dec 12, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/774411/>`_
> +* `The trouble with get_user_pages() (Apr 30, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/753027/>`_
> +
> +John Hubbard, October, 2019
> -- 
> 2.23.0
>
John Hubbard Oct. 31, 2019, 11:53 p.m. UTC | #2
On 10/31/19 4:49 PM, Ira Weiny wrote:
> On Wed, Oct 30, 2019 at 03:49:30PM -0700, John Hubbard wrote:
>> Document the new pin_user_pages() and related calls
>> and behavior.
>>
>> Thanks to Jan Kara and Vlastimil Babka for explaining the 4 cases
>> in this documentation. (I've reworded it and expanded on it slightly.)
> 
> As I said before I think this may be better in a previous patch where you
> reference it.

Yes, I'll merge this in with patch #5 ("mm/gup: introduce pin_user_pages*()
and FOLL_PIN").

...
>> +TODO: There is also a special case when the pages are DAX pages: in addition to
>> +the above flags, the caller needs something like a layout lease on the
>> +associated file. This is yet to be implemented. When it is implemented, it's
>> +expected that the lease will be a prerequisite to setting FOLL_LONGTERM.
> 
> For now we probably want to leave this note out until we figure out how this is
> going to work.  Best to say something like:
> 
> Some pages, such as DAX pages, can't be pinned with longterm pins and will
> fail.
> 

OK, that is better, I'll use that instead of the "TODO".


thanks,

John Hubbard
NVIDIA
John Hubbard Nov. 1, 2019, 12:48 a.m. UTC | #3
On 10/31/19 4:49 PM, Ira Weiny wrote:
> On Wed, Oct 30, 2019 at 03:49:30PM -0700, John Hubbard wrote:
...
>> +TODO: There is also a special case when the pages are DAX pages: in addition to
>> +the above flags, the caller needs something like a layout lease on the
>> +associated file. This is yet to be implemented. When it is implemented, it's
>> +expected that the lease will be a prerequisite to setting FOLL_LONGTERM.
> 
> For now we probably want to leave this note out until we figure out how this is
> going to work.  Best to say something like:
> 
> Some pages, such as DAX pages, can't be pinned with longterm pins and will
> fail.
> 

OK, I have this wording queued up for the v2 patch:

NOTE: Some pages, such as DAX pages, cannot be pinned with longterm pins. That's
because DAX pages do not have a separate page cache, and so "pinning" implies
locking down file system blocks, which is not (yet) supported in that way.


thanks,

John Hubbard
NVIDIA
John Hubbard Nov. 3, 2019, 7:53 p.m. UTC | #4
On 10/30/19 3:49 PM, John Hubbard wrote:
...
> +* struct page may not be increased in size for this, and all fields are already
> +  used.
> +
> +* Given the above, we can overload the page->_refcount field by using, sort of,
> +  the upper bits in that field for a dma-pinned count. "Sort of", means that,
> +  rather than dividing page->_refcount into bit fields, we simple add a medium-
> +  large value (GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS, initially chosen to be 1024: 10 bits) to
> +  page->_refcount. This provides fuzzy behavior: if a page has get_page() called
> +  on it 1024 times, then it will appear to have a single dma-pinned count.
> +  And again, that's acceptable.
> +
> +This also leads to limitations: there are only 32-10==22 bits available for a
> +counter that increments 10 bits at a time.
> +

The above claim is just a "bit" too optimistic, by one bit: page->_refcount, being 
an atomic_t which uses a signed int (and we use the sign bit to check for overflow),
only has 31 total bits available for actual counting, not 32.

I'll adjust the documentation in v2, to account for this.

thanks,

John Hubbard
NVIDIA
diff mbox series

Patch

diff --git a/Documentation/vm/index.rst b/Documentation/vm/index.rst
index e8d943b21cf9..7194efa3554a 100644
--- a/Documentation/vm/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/vm/index.rst
@@ -44,6 +44,7 @@  descriptions of data structures and algorithms.
    page_migration
    page_frags
    page_owner
+   pin_user_pages
    remap_file_pages
    slub
    split_page_table_lock
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst b/Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7110bca3f188
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/vm/pin_user_pages.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,213 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+
+====================================================
+pin_user_pages() and related calls
+====================================================
+
+.. contents:: :local:
+
+Overview
+========
+
+This document describes the following functions: ::
+
+ pin_user_pages
+ pin_user_pages_fast
+ pin_user_pages_remote
+
+ pin_longterm_pages
+ pin_longterm_pages_fast
+ pin_longterm_pages_remote
+
+Basic description of FOLL_PIN
+=============================
+
+A new flag for get_user_pages ("gup") has been added: FOLL_PIN. FOLL_PIN has
+significant interactions and interdependencies with FOLL_LONGTERM, so both are
+covered here.
+
+Both FOLL_PIN and FOLL_LONGTERM are "internal" to gup, meaning that neither
+FOLL_PIN nor FOLL_LONGTERM should not appear at the gup call sites. This allows
+the associated wrapper functions  (pin_user_pages and others) to set the correct
+combination of these flags, and to check for problems as well.
+
+FOLL_PIN and FOLL_GET are mutually exclusive for a given gup call. However,
+multiple threads and call sites are free to pin the same struct pages, via both
+FOLL_PIN and FOLL_GET. It's just the call site that needs to choose one or the
+other, not the struct page(s).
+
+The FOLL_PIN implementation is nearly the same as FOLL_GET, except that FOLL_PIN
+uses a different reference counting technique.
+
+FOLL_PIN is a prerequisite to FOLL_LONGTGERM. Another way of saying that is,
+FOLL_LONGTERM is a specific case, more restrictive case of FOLL_PIN.
+
+Which flags are set by each wrapper
+===================================
+
+Only FOLL_PIN and FOLL_LONGTERM are covered here. These flags are added to
+whatever flags the caller provides::
+
+ Function                    gup flags (FOLL_PIN or FOLL_LONGTERM only)
+ --------                    ------------------------------------------
+ pin_user_pages              FOLL_PIN
+ pin_user_pages_fast         FOLL_PIN
+ pin_user_pages_remote       FOLL_PIN
+
+ pin_longterm_pages          FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
+ pin_longterm_pages_fast     FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
+ pin_longterm_pages_remote   FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
+
+Tracking dma-pinned pages
+=========================
+
+Some of the key design constraints, and solutions, for tracking dma-pinned
+pages:
+
+* An actual reference count, per struct page, is required. This is because
+  multiple processes may pin and unpin a page.
+
+* False positives (reporting that a page is dma-pinned, when in fact it is not)
+  are acceptable, but false negatives are not.
+
+* struct page may not be increased in size for this, and all fields are already
+  used.
+
+* Given the above, we can overload the page->_refcount field by using, sort of,
+  the upper bits in that field for a dma-pinned count. "Sort of", means that,
+  rather than dividing page->_refcount into bit fields, we simple add a medium-
+  large value (GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS, initially chosen to be 1024: 10 bits) to
+  page->_refcount. This provides fuzzy behavior: if a page has get_page() called
+  on it 1024 times, then it will appear to have a single dma-pinned count.
+  And again, that's acceptable.
+
+This also leads to limitations: there are only 32-10==22 bits available for a
+counter that increments 10 bits at a time.
+
+TODO: for 1GB and larger huge pages, this is cutting it close. That's because
+when pin_user_pages() follows such pages, it increments the head page by "1"
+(where "1" used to mean "+1" for get_user_pages(), but now means "+1024" for
+pin_user_pages()) for each tail page. So if you have a 1GB huge page:
+
+* There are 256K (18 bits) worth of 4 KB tail pages.
+* There are 22 bits available to count up via GUP_PIN_COUNTING_BIAS (that is,
+  10 bits at a time)
+* There are 22 - 18 == 4 bits available to count. Except that there aren't,
+  because you need to allow for a few normal get_page() calls on the head page,
+  as well. Fortunately, the approach of using addition, rather than "hard"
+  bitfields, within page->_refcount, allows for sharing these bits gracefully.
+  But we're still looking at about 16 references.
+
+This, however, is a missing feature more than anything else, because it's easily
+solved by addressing an obvious inefficiency in the original get_user_pages()
+approach of retrieving pages: stop treating all the pages as if they were
+PAGE_SIZE. Retrieve huge pages as huge pages. The callers need to be aware of
+this, so some work is required. Once that's in place, this limitation mostly
+disappears from view, because there will be ample refcounting range available.
+
+* Callers must specifically request "dma-pinned tracking of pages". In other
+  words, just calling get_user_pages() will not suffice; a new set of functions,
+  pin_user_page() and related, must be used.
+
+FOLL_PIN, FOLL_GET, FOLL_LONGTERM: when to use which flags
+==========================================================
+
+Thanks to Jan Kara, Vlastimil Babka and several other -mm people, for describing
+these categories:
+
+CASE 1: Direct IO (DIO)
+-----------------------
+There are GUP references to pages that are serving
+as DIO buffers. These buffers are needed for a relatively short time (so they
+are not "long term"). No special synchronization with page_mkclean() or
+munmap() is provided. Therefore, flags to set at the call site are: ::
+
+    FOLL_PIN
+
+...but rather than setting FOLL_PIN directly, call sites should use one of
+the pin_user_pages*() routines that set FOLL_PIN.
+
+CASE 2: RDMA
+------------
+There are GUP references to pages that are serving as DMA
+buffers. These buffers are needed for a long time ("long term"). No special
+synchronization with page_mkclean() or munmap() is provided. Therefore, flags
+to set at the call site are: ::
+
+    FOLL_PIN | FOLL_LONGTERM
+
+TODO: There is also a special case when the pages are DAX pages: in addition to
+the above flags, the caller needs something like a layout lease on the
+associated file. This is yet to be implemented. When it is implemented, it's
+expected that the lease will be a prerequisite to setting FOLL_LONGTERM.
+
+CASE 3: ODP
+-----------
+(Mellanox/Infiniband On Demand Paging: the hardware supports
+replayable page faulting). There are GUP references to pages serving as DMA
+buffers. For ODP, MMU notifiers are used to synchronize with page_mkclean()
+and munmap(). Therefore, normal GUP calls are sufficient, so neither flag
+needs to be set.
+
+CASE 4: Pinning for struct page manipulation only
+-------------------------------------------------
+Here, normal GUP calls are sufficient, so neither flag needs to be set.
+
+page_dma_pinned(): the whole point of pinning
+=============================================
+
+The whole point of marking pages as "DMA-pinned" or "gup-pinned" is to be able
+to query, "is this page DMA-pinned?" That allows code such as page_mkclean()
+(and file system writeback code in general) to make informed decisions about
+what to do when a page cannot be unmapped due to such pins.
+
+What to do in those cases is the subject of a years-long series of discussions
+and debates (see the References at the end of this document). It's a TODO item
+here: fill in the details once that's worked out. Meanwhile, it's safe to say
+that having this available: ::
+
+        static inline bool page_dma_pinned(struct page *page)
+
+...is a prerequisite to solving the long-running gup+DMA problem.
+
+Another way of thinking about FOLL_GET, FOLL_PIN, and FOLL_LONGTERM
+===================================================================
+
+Another way of thinking about these flags is as a progression of restrictions:
+FOLL_GET is for struct page manipulation, without affecting the data that the
+struct page refers to. FOLL_PIN is a *replacement* for FOLL_GET, and is for
+short term pins on pages whose data *will* get accessed. As such, FOLL_PIN is
+a "more severe" form of pinning. And finally, FOLL_LONGTERM is an even more
+restrictive case that has FOLL_PIN as a prerequisite: this is for pages that
+will be pinned longterm, and whose data will be accessed.
+
+Unit testing
+============
+This file::
+
+ tools/testing/selftests/vm/gup_benchmark.c
+
+has the following new calls to exercise the new pin*() wrapper functions:
+
+* PIN_FAST_BENCHMARK (./gup_benchmark -a)
+* PIN_LONGTERM_BENCHMARK (./gup_benchmark -a)
+* PIN_BENCHMARK (./gup_benchmark -a)
+
+You can monitor how many total dma-pinned pages have been acquired and released
+since the system was booted, via two new /proc/vmstat entries: ::
+
+    /proc/vmstat/nr_foll_pin_requested
+    /proc/vmstat/nr_foll_pin_requested
+
+Those are both going to show zero, unless CONFIG_DEBUG_VM is set. This is
+because there is a noticeable performance drop in put_user_page(), when they
+are activated.
+
+References
+==========
+
+* `Some slow progress on get_user_pages() (Apr 2, 2019) <https://lwn.net/Articles/784574/>`_
+* `DMA and get_user_pages() (LPC: Dec 12, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/774411/>`_
+* `The trouble with get_user_pages() (Apr 30, 2018) <https://lwn.net/Articles/753027/>`_
+
+John Hubbard, October, 2019