diff mbox series

[v30,10/13] Documentation: Add documents for DAMON

Message ID 20210616073119.16758-11-sj38.park@gmail.com (mailing list archive)
State New
Headers show
Series Introduce Data Access MONitor (DAMON) | expand

Commit Message

SeongJae Park June 16, 2021, 7:31 a.m. UTC
From: SeongJae Park <sjpark@amazon.de>

This commit adds documents for DAMON under
`Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/` and `Documentation/vm/damon/`.

Signed-off-by: SeongJae Park <sjpark@amazon.de>
Reviewed-by: Fernand Sieber <sieberf@amazon.com>
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst |  15 ++
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst | 114 +++++++++++++
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst | 112 +++++++++++++
 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst       |   1 +
 Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst               |  20 +++
 Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst            | 166 +++++++++++++++++++
 Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst               |  51 ++++++
 Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst             |  30 ++++
 Documentation/vm/index.rst                   |   1 +
 9 files changed, 510 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst
 create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst


Boehme, Markus June 17, 2021, 11:07 a.m. UTC | #1
On Wed, 2021-06-16 at 07:31 +0000, SeongJae Park wrote:
> From: SeongJae Park <sjpark@amazon.de>
> This commit adds documents for DAMON under
> `Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/` and `Documentation/vm/damon/`.
> Signed-off-by: SeongJae Park <sjpark@amazon.de>
> Reviewed-by: Fernand Sieber <sieberf@amazon.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst |  15 ++
>  Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst | 114 +++++++++++++
>  Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst | 112 +++++++++++++
>  Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst       |   1 +
>  Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst               |  20 +++
>  Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst            | 166 +++++++++++++++++++
>  Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst               |  51 ++++++
>  Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst             |  30 ++++
>  Documentation/vm/index.rst                   |   1 +
>  9 files changed, 510 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst

Reviewed-by: Markus Boehme <markubo@amazon.de>

Amazon Development Center Germany GmbH
Krausenstr. 38
10117 Berlin
Geschaeftsfuehrung: Christian Schlaeger, Jonathan Weiss
Eingetragen am Amtsgericht Charlottenburg unter HRB 149173 B
Sitz: Berlin
Ust-ID: DE 289 237 879
diff mbox series


diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8c5dde3a5754
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Monitoring Data Accesses
+:doc:`DAMON </vm/damon/index>` allows light-weight data access monitoring.
+Using DAMON, users can analyze the memory access patterns of their systems and
+optimize those.
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 2
+   start
+   usage
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d5eb89a8fc38
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,114 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Getting Started
+This document briefly describes how you can use DAMON by demonstrating its
+default user space tool.  Please note that this document describes only a part
+of its features for brevity.  Please refer to :doc:`usage` for more details.
+Follow the commands below to monitor and visualize the memory access pattern of
+your workload. ::
+    # # build the kernel with CONFIG_DAMON_*=y, install it, and reboot
+    # mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug/
+    # git clone https://github.com/awslabs/damo
+    # ./damo/damo record $(pidof <your workload>)
+    # ./damo/damo report heat --plot_ascii
+The final command draws the access heatmap of ``<your workload>``.  The heatmap
+shows which memory region (x-axis) is accessed when (y-axis) and how frequently
+(number; the higher the more accesses have been observed). ::
+    111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000
+    111121111111111111111111111111211111111111111111111111110000
+    000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001555552000
+    000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000222223555552000
+    000000000000000000000000000000000000000011111677775000000000
+    000000000000000000000000000000000000000488888000000000000000
+    000000000000000000000000000000000177888400000000000000000000
+    000000000000000000000000000046666522222100000000000000000000
+    000000000000000000000014444344444300000000000000000000000000
+    000000000000000002222245555510000000000000000000000000000000
+    # access_frequency:  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
+    # x-axis: space (140286319947776-140286426374096: 101.496 MiB)
+    # y-axis: time (605442256436361-605479951866441: 37.695430s)
+    # resolution: 60x10 (1.692 MiB and 3.770s for each character)
+You should first ensure your system is running on a kernel built with
+User Space Tool
+For the demonstration, we will use the default user space tool for DAMON,
+called DAMON Operator (DAMO).  It is available at
+https://github.com/awslabs/damo.  The examples below assume that ``damo`` is on
+your ``$PATH``.  It's not mandatory, though.
+Because DAMO is using the debugfs interface (refer to :doc:`usage` for the
+detail) of DAMON, you should ensure debugfs is mounted.  Mount it manually as
+    # mount -t debugfs none /sys/kernel/debug/
+or append the following line to your ``/etc/fstab`` file so that your system
+can automatically mount debugfs upon booting::
+    debugfs /sys/kernel/debug debugfs defaults 0 0
+Recording Data Access Patterns
+The commands below record the memory access patterns of a program and save the
+monitoring results to a file. ::
+    $ git clone https://github.com/sjp38/masim
+    $ cd masim; make; ./masim ./configs/zigzag.cfg &
+    $ sudo damo record -o damon.data $(pidof masim)
+The first two lines of the commands download an artificial memory access
+generator program and run it in the background.  The generator will repeatedly
+access two 100 MiB sized memory regions one by one.  You can substitute this
+with your real workload.  The last line asks ``damo`` to record the access
+pattern in the ``damon.data`` file.
+Visualizing Recorded Patterns
+The following three commands visualize the recorded access patterns and save
+the results as separate image files. ::
+    $ damo report heats --heatmap access_pattern_heatmap.png
+    $ damo report wss --range 0 101 1 --plot wss_dist.png
+    $ damo report wss --range 0 101 1 --sortby time --plot wss_chron_change.png
+- ``access_pattern_heatmap.png`` will visualize the data access pattern in a
+  heatmap, showing which memory region (y-axis) got accessed when (x-axis)
+  and how frequently (color).
+- ``wss_dist.png`` will show the distribution of the working set size.
+- ``wss_chron_change.png`` will show how the working set size has
+  chronologically changed.
+You can view the visualizations of this example workload at [1]_.
+Visualizations of other realistic workloads are available at [2]_ [3]_ [4]_.
+.. [1] https://damonitor.github.io/doc/html/v17/admin-guide/mm/damon/start.html#visualizing-recorded-patterns
+.. [2] https://damonitor.github.io/test/result/visual/latest/rec.heatmap.1.png.html
+.. [3] https://damonitor.github.io/test/result/visual/latest/rec.wss_sz.png.html
+.. [4] https://damonitor.github.io/test/result/visual/latest/rec.wss_time.png.html
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a72cda374aba
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/damon/usage.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,112 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Detailed Usages
+DAMON provides below three interfaces for different users.
+- *DAMON user space tool.*
+  This is for privileged people such as system administrators who want a
+  just-working human-friendly interface.  Using this, users can use the DAMON’s
+  major features in a human-friendly way.  It may not be highly tuned for
+  special cases, though.  It supports only virtual address spaces monitoring.
+- *debugfs interface.*
+  This is for privileged user space programmers who want more optimized use of
+  DAMON.  Using this, users can use DAMON’s major features by reading
+  from and writing to special debugfs files.  Therefore, you can write and use
+  your personalized DAMON debugfs wrapper programs that reads/writes the
+  debugfs files instead of you.  The DAMON user space tool is also a reference
+  implementation of such programs.  It supports only virtual address spaces
+  monitoring.
+- *Kernel Space Programming Interface.*
+  This is for kernel space programmers.  Using this, users can utilize every
+  feature of DAMON most flexibly and efficiently by writing kernel space
+  DAMON application programs for you.  You can even extend DAMON for various
+  address spaces.
+Nevertheless, you could write your own user space tool using the debugfs
+interface.  A reference implementation is available at
+https://github.com/awslabs/damo.  If you are a kernel programmer, you could
+refer to :doc:`/vm/damon/api` for the kernel space programming interface.  For
+the reason, this document describes only the debugfs interface
+debugfs Interface
+DAMON exports three files, ``attrs``, ``target_ids``, and ``monitor_on`` under
+its debugfs directory, ``<debugfs>/damon/``.
+Users can get and set the ``sampling interval``, ``aggregation interval``,
+``regions update interval``, and min/max number of monitoring target regions by
+reading from and writing to the ``attrs`` file.  To know about the monitoring
+attributes in detail, please refer to the :doc:`/vm/damon/design`.  For
+example, below commands set those values to 5 ms, 100 ms, 1,000 ms, 10 and
+1000, and then check it again::
+    # cd <debugfs>/damon
+    # echo 5000 100000 1000000 10 1000 > attrs
+    # cat attrs
+    5000 100000 1000000 10 1000
+Target IDs
+Some types of address spaces supports multiple monitoring target.  For example,
+the virtual memory address spaces monitoring can have multiple processes as the
+monitoring targets.  Users can set the targets by writing relevant id values of
+the targets to, and get the ids of the current targets by reading from the
+``target_ids`` file.  In case of the virtual address spaces monitoring, the
+values should be pids of the monitoring target processes.  For example, below
+commands set processes having pids 42 and 4242 as the monitoring targets and
+check it again::
+    # cd <debugfs>/damon
+    # echo 42 4242 > target_ids
+    # cat target_ids
+    42 4242
+Note that setting the target ids doesn't start the monitoring.
+Turning On/Off
+Setting the files as described above doesn't incur effect unless you explicitly
+start the monitoring.  You can start, stop, and check the current status of the
+monitoring by writing to and reading from the ``monitor_on`` file.  Writing
+``on`` to the file starts the monitoring of the targets with the attributes.
+Writing ``off`` to the file stops those.  DAMON also stops if every target
+process is terminated.  Below example commands turn on, off, and check the
+status of DAMON::
+    # cd <debugfs>/damon
+    # echo on > monitor_on
+    # echo off > monitor_on
+    # cat monitor_on
+    off
+Please note that you cannot write to the above-mentioned debugfs files while
+the monitoring is turned on.  If you write to the files while DAMON is running,
+an error code such as ``-EBUSY`` will be returned.
+Tracepoint for Monitoring Results
+DAMON provides the monitoring results via a tracepoint,
+``damon:damon_aggregated``.  While the monitoring is turned on, you could
+record the tracepoint events and show results using tracepoint supporting tools
+like ``perf``.  For example::
+    # echo on > monitor_on
+    # perf record -e damon:damon_aggregated &
+    # sleep 5
+    # kill 9 $(pidof perf)
+    # echo off > monitor_on
+    # perf script
diff --git a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst
index 4b14d8b50e9e..cbd19d5e625f 100644
--- a/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/admin-guide/mm/index.rst
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@  the Linux memory management.
+   damon/index
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst b/Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..08f34df45523
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/vm/damon/api.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+API Reference
+Kernel space programs can use every feature of DAMON using below APIs.  All you
+need to do is including ``damon.h``, which is located in ``include/linux/`` of
+the source tree.
+.. kernel-doc:: include/linux/damon.h
+.. kernel-doc:: mm/damon/core.c
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst b/Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b05159c295f4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/vm/damon/design.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,166 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Configurable Layers
+DAMON provides data access monitoring functionality while making the accuracy
+and the overhead controllable.  The fundamental access monitorings require
+primitives that dependent on and optimized for the target address space.  On
+the other hand, the accuracy and overhead tradeoff mechanism, which is the core
+of DAMON, is in the pure logic space.  DAMON separates the two parts in
+different layers and defines its interface to allow various low level
+primitives implementations configurable with the core logic.
+Due to this separated design and the configurable interface, users can extend
+DAMON for any address space by configuring the core logics with appropriate low
+level primitive implementations.  If appropriate one is not provided, users can
+implement the primitives on their own.
+For example, physical memory, virtual memory, swap space, those for specific
+processes, NUMA nodes, files, and backing memory devices would be supportable.
+Also, if some architectures or devices support special optimized access check
+primitives, those will be easily configurable.
+Reference Implementations of Address Space Specific Primitives
+The low level primitives for the fundamental access monitoring are defined in
+two parts:
+1. Identification of the monitoring target address range for the address space.
+2. Access check of specific address range in the target space.
+DAMON currently provides the implementation of the primitives for only the
+virtual address spaces. Below two subsections describe how it works.
+VMA-based Target Address Range Construction
+Only small parts in the super-huge virtual address space of the processes are
+mapped to the physical memory and accessed.  Thus, tracking the unmapped
+address regions is just wasteful.  However, because DAMON can deal with some
+level of noise using the adaptive regions adjustment mechanism, tracking every
+mapping is not strictly required but could even incur a high overhead in some
+cases.  That said, too huge unmapped areas inside the monitoring target should
+be removed to not take the time for the adaptive mechanism.
+For the reason, this implementation converts the complex mappings to three
+distinct regions that cover every mapped area of the address space.  The two
+gaps between the three regions are the two biggest unmapped areas in the given
+address space.  The two biggest unmapped areas would be the gap between the
+heap and the uppermost mmap()-ed region, and the gap between the lowermost
+mmap()-ed region and the stack in most of the cases.  Because these gaps are
+exceptionally huge in usual address spaces, excluding these will be sufficient
+to make a reasonable trade-off.  Below shows this in detail::
+    <heap>
+    <uppermost mmap()-ed region>
+    (small mmap()-ed regions and munmap()-ed regions)
+    <lowermost mmap()-ed region>
+    <stack>
+PTE Accessed-bit Based Access Check
+The implementation for the virtual address space uses PTE Accessed-bit for
+basic access checks.  It finds the relevant PTE Accessed bit from the address
+by walking the page table for the target task of the address.  In this way, the
+implementation finds and clears the bit for next sampling target address and
+checks whether the bit set again after one sampling period.  This could disturb
+other kernel subsystems using the Accessed bits, namely Idle page tracking and
+the reclaim logic.  To avoid such disturbances, DAMON makes it mutually
+exclusive with Idle page tracking and uses ``PG_idle`` and ``PG_young`` page
+flags to solve the conflict with the reclaim logic, as Idle page tracking does.
+Address Space Independent Core Mechanisms
+Below four sections describe each of the DAMON core mechanisms and the five
+monitoring attributes, ``sampling interval``, ``aggregation interval``,
+``regions update interval``, ``minimum number of regions``, and ``maximum
+number of regions``.
+Access Frequency Monitoring
+The output of DAMON says what pages are how frequently accessed for a given
+duration.  The resolution of the access frequency is controlled by setting
+``sampling interval`` and ``aggregation interval``.  In detail, DAMON checks
+access to each page per ``sampling interval`` and aggregates the results.  In
+other words, counts the number of the accesses to each page.  After each
+``aggregation interval`` passes, DAMON calls callback functions that previously
+registered by users so that users can read the aggregated results and then
+clears the results.  This can be described in below simple pseudo-code::
+    while monitoring_on:
+        for page in monitoring_target:
+            if accessed(page):
+                nr_accesses[page] += 1
+        if time() % aggregation_interval == 0:
+            for callback in user_registered_callbacks:
+                callback(monitoring_target, nr_accesses)
+            for page in monitoring_target:
+                nr_accesses[page] = 0
+        sleep(sampling interval)
+The monitoring overhead of this mechanism will arbitrarily increase as the
+size of the target workload grows.
+Region Based Sampling
+To avoid the unbounded increase of the overhead, DAMON groups adjacent pages
+that assumed to have the same access frequencies into a region.  As long as the
+assumption (pages in a region have the same access frequencies) is kept, only
+one page in the region is required to be checked.  Thus, for each ``sampling
+interval``, DAMON randomly picks one page in each region, waits for one
+``sampling interval``, checks whether the page is accessed meanwhile, and
+increases the access frequency of the region if so.  Therefore, the monitoring
+overhead is controllable by setting the number of regions.  DAMON allows users
+to set the minimum and the maximum number of regions for the trade-off.
+This scheme, however, cannot preserve the quality of the output if the
+assumption is not guaranteed.
+Adaptive Regions Adjustment
+Even somehow the initial monitoring target regions are well constructed to
+fulfill the assumption (pages in same region have similar access frequencies),
+the data access pattern can be dynamically changed.  This will result in low
+monitoring quality.  To keep the assumption as much as possible, DAMON
+adaptively merges and splits each region based on their access frequency.
+For each ``aggregation interval``, it compares the access frequencies of
+adjacent regions and merges those if the frequency difference is small.  Then,
+after it reports and clears the aggregated access frequency of each region, it
+splits each region into two or three regions if the total number of regions
+will not exceed the user-specified maximum number of regions after the split.
+In this way, DAMON provides its best-effort quality and minimal overhead while
+keeping the bounds users set for their trade-off.
+Dynamic Target Space Updates Handling
+The monitoring target address range could dynamically changed.  For example,
+virtual memory could be dynamically mapped and unmapped.  Physical memory could
+be hot-plugged.
+As the changes could be quite frequent in some cases, DAMON checks the dynamic
+memory mapping changes and applies it to the abstracted target area only for
+each of a user-specified time interval (``regions update interval``).
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst b/Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cb3d8b585a8b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/vm/damon/faq.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,51 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+Frequently Asked Questions
+Why a new subsystem, instead of extending perf or other user space tools?
+First, because it needs to be lightweight as much as possible so that it can be
+used online, any unnecessary overhead such as kernel - user space context
+switching cost should be avoided.  Second, DAMON aims to be used by other
+programs including the kernel.  Therefore, having a dependency on specific
+tools like perf is not desirable.  These are the two biggest reasons why DAMON
+is implemented in the kernel space.
+Can 'idle pages tracking' or 'perf mem' substitute DAMON?
+Idle page tracking is a low level primitive for access check of the physical
+address space.  'perf mem' is similar, though it can use sampling to minimize
+the overhead.  On the other hand, DAMON is a higher-level framework for the
+monitoring of various address spaces.  It is focused on memory management
+optimization and provides sophisticated accuracy/overhead handling mechanisms.
+Therefore, 'idle pages tracking' and 'perf mem' could provide a subset of
+DAMON's output, but cannot substitute DAMON.
+Does DAMON support virtual memory only?
+No.  The core of the DAMON is address space independent.  The address space
+specific low level primitive parts including monitoring target regions
+constructions and actual access checks can be implemented and configured on the
+DAMON core by the users.  In this way, DAMON users can monitor any address
+space with any access check technique.
+Nonetheless, DAMON provides vma tracking and PTE Accessed bit check based
+implementations of the address space dependent functions for the virtual memory
+by default, for a reference and convenient use.  In near future, we will
+provide those for physical memory address space.
+Can I simply monitor page granularity?
+Yes.  You can do so by setting the ``min_nr_regions`` attribute higher than the
+working set size divided by the page size.  Because the monitoring target
+regions size is forced to be ``>=page size``, the region split will make no
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst b/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a2858baf3bf1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/vm/damon/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+DAMON: Data Access MONitor
+DAMON is a data access monitoring framework subsystem for the Linux kernel.
+The core mechanisms of DAMON (refer to :doc:`design` for the detail) make it
+ - *accurate* (the monitoring output is useful enough for DRAM level memory
+   management; It might not appropriate for CPU Cache levels, though),
+ - *light-weight* (the monitoring overhead is low enough to be applied online),
+   and
+ - *scalable* (the upper-bound of the overhead is in constant range regardless
+   of the size of target workloads).
+Using this framework, therefore, the kernel's memory management mechanisms can
+make advanced decisions.  Experimental memory management optimization works
+that incurring high data accesses monitoring overhead could implemented again.
+In user space, meanwhile, users who have some special workloads can write
+personalized applications for better understanding and optimizations of their
+workloads and systems.
+.. toctree::
+   :maxdepth: 2
+   faq
+   design
+   api
+   plans
diff --git a/Documentation/vm/index.rst b/Documentation/vm/index.rst
index eff5fbd492d0..b51f0d8992f8 100644
--- a/Documentation/vm/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/vm/index.rst
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@  descriptions of data structures and algorithms.
+   damon/index