diff mbox series

[RFC,v1,3/6] badblocks: improvement badblocks_set() for multiple ranges handling

Message ID 20210302040252.103720-4-colyli@suse.de (mailing list archive)
State New
Headers show
Series badblocks improvement for multiple bad block ranges | expand

Commit Message

Coly Li March 2, 2021, 4:02 a.m. UTC
Recently I received a bug report that current badblocks code does not
properly handle multiple ranges. For example,
	badblocks_set(bb, 32, 1, true);
	badblocks_set(bb, 34, 1, true);
	badblocks_set(bb, 36, 1, true);
	badblocks_set(bb, 32, 12, true);
Then indeed badblocks_show() reports,
	32 3
	36 1
But the expected bad blocks table should be,
	32 12
Obviously only the first 2 ranges are merged and badblocks_set() returns
and ignores the rest setting range.

This behavior is improper, if the caller of badblocks_set() wants to set
a range of blocks into bad blocks table, all of the blocks in the range
should be handled even the previous part encountering failure.

The desired way to set bad blocks range by badblocks_set() is,
- Set as many as blocks in the setting range into bad blocks table.
- Merge the bad blocks ranges and occupy as less as slots in the bad
  blocks table.
- Fast.

Indeed the above proposal is complicated, especially with the following
restrictions,
- The setting bad blocks range can be ackknowledged or not acknowledged.
- The bad blocks table size is limited.
- Memory allocation should be avoided.

The basic idea of the patch is to categorize all possible bad blocks
range setting combinationsinto to much less simplified and more less
special conditions. Inside badblocks_set() there is an implicit loop
composed by jumping between labels 're_insert' and 'update_sectors'. No
matter how large the setting bad blocks range is, in every loop just a
minimized range from the head is handled by a pre-defined behavior from
one of the categorized conditions. The logic is simple and code flow is
manageable.

The different relative layout between the setting range and existing bad
block range are checked and handled (merge, combine, overwrite, insert)
by the helpers in previous patch. This patch is to make all the helpers
work together with the above idea.

This patch only has the algorithm improvement for badblocks_set(). There
are following patches contain improvement for badblocks_clear() and
badblocks_check(). But the algorithm in badblocks_set() is fundamental
and typical, other improvement in clear and check routines are based on
all the helpers and ideas in this patch.

In order to make the change to be more clear for code review, this patch
does not directly modify existing badblocks_set(), and just add a new
one named _badblocks_set(). Later patch will remove current existing
badblocks_set() code and make it as a wrapper of _badblocks_set(). So
the new added change won't be mixed with deleted code, the code review
can be easier.

Signed-off-by: Coly Li <colyli@suse.de>
---
 block/badblocks.c | 561 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
 1 file changed, 541 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)
diff mbox series

Patch

diff --git a/block/badblocks.c b/block/badblocks.c
index fd76bbe7b5a2..b0a7780d75c2 100644
--- a/block/badblocks.c
+++ b/block/badblocks.c
@@ -16,6 +16,322 @@ 
 #include <linux/types.h>
 #include <linux/slab.h>
 
+/*
+ * The purpose of badblocks set/clear is to manage bad blocks ranges which are
+ * identified by LBA addresses.
+ *
+ * When the caller of badblocks_set() wants to set a range of bad blocks, the
+ * setting range can be acked or unacked. And the setting range may merge,
+ * overwrite, skip the overlaypped already set range, depends on who they are
+ * overlapped or adjacent, and the acknowledgment type of the ranges. It can be
+ * more complicated when the setting range covers multiple already set bad block
+ * ranges, with restritctions of maximum length of each bad range and the bad
+ * table space limitation.
+ *
+ * It is difficut and unnecessary to take care of all the possible situations,
+ * for setting a large range of bad blocks, we can handle it by dividing the
+ * large range into smaller ones when encounter overlap, max range length or
+ * bad table full conditions. Every time only a smaller piece of the bad range
+ * is handled with a limited number of conditions how it is interacted with
+ * possible overlapped or adjacent already set bad block ranges. Then the hard
+ * complicated problem can be much simpler to habndle in proper way.
+ *
+ * When setting a range of bad blocks to the bad table, the simplified situations
+ * to be considered are, (The already set bad blocks ranges are naming with
+ *  prefix E, and the setting bad blocks range is naming with prefix S)
+ *
+ * 1) A setting range is not overlapped or adjacent to any other already set bad
+ *    block range.
+ *                         +--------+
+ *                         |    S   |
+ *                         +--------+
+ *        +-------------+               +-------------+
+ *        |      E1     |               |      E2     |
+ *        +-------------+               +-------------+
+ *    For this situation if the bad blocks table is not full, just allocate a
+ *    free slot from the bad blocks table to mark the setting range S. The
+ *    result is,
+ *        +-------------+  +--------+   +-------------+
+ *        |      E1     |  |    S   |   |      E2     |
+ *        +-------------+  +--------+   +-------------+
+ * 2) A setting range starts exactly at a start LBA of an already set bad blocks
+ *    range.
+ * 2.1) The setting range size < already set range size
+ *        +--------+
+ *        |    S   |
+ *        +--------+
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 2.1.1) If S and E are both acked or unacked range, the setting range S can
+ *    be merged into existing bad range E. The result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      S      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 2.1.2) If S is uncked setting and E is acked, the setting will be dinied, and
+ *    the result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 2.1.3) If S is acked setting and E is unacked, range S can overwirte on E.
+ *    An extra slot from the bad blocks table will be allocated for S, and head
+ *    of E will move to end of the inserted range E. The result is,
+ *        +--------+----+
+ *        |    S   | E  |
+ *        +--------+----+
+ * 2.2) The setting range size == already set range size
+ * 2.2.1) If S and E are both acked or unacked range, the setting range S can
+ *    be merged into existing bad range E. The result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      S      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 2.2.2) If S is uncked setting and E is acked, the setting will be dinied, and
+ *    the result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 2.2.3) If S is acked setting and E is unacked, range S can overwirte all of
+      bad blocks range E. The result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      S      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 2.3) The setting range size > already set range size
+ *        +-------------------+
+ *        |          S        |
+ *        +-------------------+
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ *    For such situation, the setting range S can be treated as two parts, the
+ *    first part (S1) is as same size as the already set range E, the second
+ *    part (S2) is the rest of setting range.
+ *        +-------------+-----+        +-------------+       +-----+
+ *        |    S1       | S2  |        |     S1      |       | S2  |
+ *        +-------------+-----+  ===>  +-------------+       +-----+
+ *        +-------------+              +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |              |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+              +-------------+
+ *    Now we only focus on how to handle the setting range S1 and already set
+ *    range E, which are already explained in 1.2), for the rest S2 it will be
+ *    handled later in next loop.
+ * 3) A setting range starts before the start LBA of an already set bad blocks
+ *    range.
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      S      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ *             +-------------+
+ *             |      E      |
+ *             +-------------+
+ *    For this situation, the setting range S can be divided into two parts, the
+ *    first (S1) ends at the start LBA of already set range E, the second part
+ *    (S2) starts exactly at a start LBA of the already set range E.
+ *        +----+---------+             +----+      +---------+
+ *        | S1 |    S2   |             | S1 |      |    S2   |
+ *        +----+---------+      ===>   +----+      +---------+
+ *             +-------------+                     +-------------+
+ *             |      E      |                     |      E      |
+ *             +-------------+                     +-------------+
+ *    Now only the first part S1 should be handled in this loop, which is in
+ *    similar condition as 1). The rest part S2 has exact same start LBA address
+ *    of the already set range E, they will be handled in next loop in one of
+ *    situations in 2).
+ * 4) A setting range starts after the start LBA of an already set bad blocks
+ *    range.
+ * 4.1) If the setting range S exactly matches the tail part of already set bad
+ *    blocks range E, like the following chart shows,
+ *            +---------+
+ *            |   S     |
+ *            +---------+
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 4.1.1) If range S and E have same ackknowledg value (both acked or unacked),
+ *    they will be merged into one, the result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      S      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 4.1.2) If range E is acked and the setting range S is unacked, the setting
+ *    request of S will be rejected, the result is,
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ * 4.1.3) If range E is unacked, and the setting range S is acked, then S may
+ *    overwrite the overlapped range of E, the result is,
+ *        +---+---------+
+ *        | E |    S    |
+ *        +---+---------+
+ * 4.2) If the setting range S stays in middle of an already set range E, like
+ *    the following chart shows,
+ *             +----+
+ *             | S  |
+ *             +----+
+ *        +--------------+
+ *        |       E      |
+ *        +--------------+
+ * 4.2.1) If range S and E have same ackknowledg value (both acked or unacked),
+ *    they will be merged into one, the result is,
+ *        +--------------+
+ *        |       S      |
+ *        +--------------+
+ * 4.2.2) If range E is acked and the setting range S is unacked, the setting
+ *    request of S will be rejected, the result is also,
+ *        +--------------+
+ *        |       E      |
+ *        +--------------+
+ * 4.2.3) If range E is unacked, and the setting range S is acked, then S will
+ *    inserted into middle of E and split previous range E into twp parts (E1
+ *    and E2), the result is,
+ *        +----+----+----+
+ *        | E1 |  S | E2 |
+ *        +----+----+----+
+ * 4.3) If the setting bad blocks range S is overlapped with an already set bad
+ *    blocks range E. The range S starts after the start LBA of range E, and
+ *    ends after the end LBA of range E, as the following chart shows,
+ *            +-------------------+
+ *            |          S        |
+ *            +-------------------+
+ *        +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+
+ *    For this situation the range S can be divided into two parts, the first
+ *    part (S1) ends at end range E, and the second part (S2) has rest range of
+ *    origin S.
+ *            +---------+---------+            +---------+      +---------+
+ *            |    S1   |    S2   |            |    S1   |      |    S2   |
+ *            +---------+---------+  ===>      +---------+      +---------+
+ *        +-------------+                  +-------------+
+ *        |      E      |                  |      E      |
+ *        +-------------+                  +-------------+
+ *     Now in this loop the setting range S1 and already set range E can be
+ *     handled as the situations 4), the rest range S2 will be handled in next
+ *     loop and ignored in this loop.
+ * 5) A setting bad blocks range S is adjacent to one or more already set bad
+ *    blocks range(s), and they are all acked or unacked range.
+ * 5.1) Front merge: If the already set bad blocks range E is before setting
+ *    range S and they are adjacent,
+ *                +------+
+ *                |  S   |
+ *                +------+
+ *        +-------+
+ *        |   E   |
+ *        +-------+
+ * 5.1.1) When total size of range S and E <= BB_MAX_LEN, and their acknowledge
+ *    values are same, the setting range S can front merges into range E. The
+ *    result is,
+ *        +--------------+
+ *        |       S      |
+ *        +--------------+
+ * 5.1.2) Otherwise these two ranges cannot merge, just insert the setting
+ *    range S right after already set range E into the bad blocks table. The
+ *    result is,
+ *        +--------+------+
+ *        |   E    |   S  |
+ *        +--------+------+
+ * 6) Special cases which above conditions cannot handle
+ * 6.1) Multiple already set ranges may merge into less ones in a full bad table
+ *        +-------------------------------------------------------+
+ *        |                           S                           |
+ *        +-------------------------------------------------------+
+ *        |<----- BB_MAX_LEN ----->|
+ *                                 +-----+     +-----+   +-----+
+ *                                 | E1  |     | E2  |   | E3  |
+ *                                 +-----+     +-----+   +-----+
+ *     In the above example, when the bad blocks table is full, inserting the
+ *     first part of setting range S will fail because no more available slot
+ *     can be allocated from bad blocks table. In this situation a proper
+ *     setting method should be go though all the setting bad blocks range and
+ *     look for chance to merge already set ranges into less ones. When there
+ *     is available slot from bad blocks table, re-try again to handle more
+ *     setting bad blocks ranges as many as possible.
+ *        +------------------------+
+ *        |          S3            |
+ *        +------------------------+
+ *        |<----- BB_MAX_LEN ----->|
+ *                                 +-----+-----+-----+---+-----+--+
+ *                                 |       S1        |     S2     |
+ *                                 +-----+-----+-----+---+-----+--+
+ *     The above chart shows although the first part (S3) cannot be inserted due
+ *     to no-space in bad blocks table, but the following E1, E2 and E3 ranges
+ *     can be merged with rest part of S into less range S1 and S2. Now there is
+ *     1 free slot in bad blocks table.
+ *        +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+--+
+ *        |           S3           |       S1        |     S2     |
+ *        +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+---+-----+--+
+ *     Since the bad blocks table is not full anymore, re-try again for the
+ *     origin setting range S. Now the setting range S3 can be inserted into the
+ *     bad blocks table with previous freed slot from multiple ranges merge.
+ * 6.2) Front merge after overwrite
+ *    In the following example, in bad blocks table, E1 is an acked bad blocks
+ *    range and E2 is an unacked bad blocks range, therefore they are not able
+ *    to merge into a larger range. The setting bad blocks range S is acked,
+ *    therefore part of E2 can be overwritten by S.
+ *                      +--------+
+ *                      |    S   |                             acknowledged
+ *                      +--------+                         S:       1
+ *              +-------+-------------+                   E1:       1
+ *              |   E1  |    E2       |                   E2:       0
+ *              +-------+-------------+
+ *     With previosu simplified routines, after overwiting part of E2 with S,
+ *     the bad blocks table should be (E3 is remaining part of E2 which is not
+ *     overwritten by S),
+ *                                                             acknowledged
+ *              +-------+--------+----+                    S:       1
+ *              |   E1  |    S   | E3 |                   E1:       1
+ *              +-------+--------+----+                   E3:       0
+ *     The above result is correct but not perfect. Range E1 and S in the bad
+ *     blocks table are all acked, merging them into a larger one range may
+ *     occupy less bad blocks table space and make badblocks_check() faster.
+ *     Therefore in such situation, after overwiting range S, the previous range
+ *     E1 should be checked for possible front combination. Then the ideal
+ *     result can be,
+ *              +----------------+----+                        acknowledged
+ *              |       E1       | E3 |                   E1:       1
+ *              +----------------+----+                   E3:       0
+ * 6.3) Behind merge: If the already set bad blocks range E is behind the setting
+ *    range S and they are adjacent. Normally we don't need to care about this
+ *    because front merge handles this while going though range S from head to
+ *    tail, except for the tail part of range S. When the setting range S are
+ *    fully handled, all the above simplified routine doesn't check whether the
+ *    tail LBA of range S is adjacent to the next already set range and not able
+ *    to them if they are mergeable.
+ *        +------+
+ *        |  S   |
+ *        +------+
+ *               +-------+
+ *               |   E   |
+ *               +-------+
+ *    For the above special stiuation, when the setting range S are all handled
+ *    and the loop ends, an extra check is necessary for whether next already
+ *    set range E is right after S and mergeable.
+ * 6.2.1) When total size of range E and S <= BB_MAX_LEN, and their acknowledge
+ *    values are same, the setting range S can behind merges into range E. The
+ *    result is,
+ *        +--------------+
+ *        |       S      |
+ *        +--------------+
+ * 6.2.2) Otherwise these two ranges cannot merge, just insert the setting range
+ *     S infront of the already set range E in the bad blocks table. The result
+ *     is,
+ *        +------+-------+
+ *        |  S   |   E   |
+ *        +------+-------+
+ *
+ * All the above 5 simplified situations and 3 special cases may cover 99%+ of
+ * the bad block range setting conditions. Maybe there is some rare corner case
+ * is not considered and optimized, it won't hurt if badblocks_set() fails due
+ * to no space, or some ranges are not merged to save bad blocks table space.
+ *
+ * Inside badblocks_set() each loop starts by jumping to re_insert label, every
+ * time for the new loop prev_badblocks() is called to find an already set range
+ * which starts before or at current setting range. Since the setting bad blocks
+ * range is handled from head to tail, most of the cases it is unnecessary to do
+ * the binary search inside prev_badblocks(), it is possible to provide a hint
+ * to prev_badblocks() for a fast path, then the expensive binary search can be
+ * avoided. In my test with the hint to prev_badblocks(), except for the first
+ * loop, all rested calls to prev_badblocks() can go into the fast path and
+ * return correct bad blocks table index immediately.
+ */
+
 /*
  * Find the range starts at-or-before 's' from bad table. The search
  * starts from index 'hint' and stops at index 'hint_end' from the bad
@@ -390,6 +706,231 @@  static int insert_at(struct badblocks *bb, int at, struct bad_context *bad)
 	return len;
 }
 
+static void badblocks_update_acked(struct badblocks *bb)
+{
+	u64 *p = bb->page;
+	int i;
+	bool unacked = false;
+
+	if (!bb->unacked_exist)
+		return;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < bb->count ; i++) {
+		if (!BB_ACK(p[i])) {
+			unacked = true;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if (!unacked)
+		bb->unacked_exist = 0;
+}
+
+/* Do exact work to set bad block range into the bad block table */
+static int _badblocks_set(struct badblocks *bb, sector_t s, int sectors,
+			  int acknowledged)
+{
+	u64 *p;
+	struct bad_context bad;
+	int prev = -1, hint = -1;
+	int len = 0, added = 0;
+	int retried = 0, space_desired = 0;
+	int rv = 0;
+	unsigned long flags;
+
+	if (bb->shift < 0)
+		/* badblocks are disabled */
+		return 1;
+
+	if (sectors == 0)
+		/* Invalid sectors number */
+		return 1;
+
+	if (bb->shift) {
+		/* round the start down, and the end up */
+		sector_t next = s + sectors;
+
+		rounddown(s, bb->shift);
+		roundup(next, bb->shift);
+		sectors = next - s;
+	}
+
+	write_seqlock_irqsave(&bb->lock, flags);
+
+	bad.orig_start = s;
+	bad.orig_len = sectors;
+	bad.ack = acknowledged;
+	p = bb->page;
+
+re_insert:
+	bad.start = s;
+	bad.len = sectors;
+	len = 0;
+
+	if (badblocks_empty(bb)) {
+		len = insert_at(bb, 0, &bad);
+		bb->count++;
+		added++;
+		goto update_sectors;
+	}
+
+	prev = prev_badblocks(bb, &bad, hint);
+
+	/* start before all badblocks */
+	if (prev < 0) {
+		if (!badblocks_full(bb)) {
+			/* insert on the first */
+			if (bad.len > (BB_OFFSET(p[0]) - bad.start))
+				bad.len = BB_OFFSET(p[0]) - bad.start;
+			len = insert_at(bb, 0, &bad);
+			bb->count++;
+			added++;
+			hint = 0;
+			goto update_sectors;
+		}
+
+		/* No sapce, try to merge */
+		if (overlap_behind(bb, &bad, 0)) {
+			if (can_merge_behind(bb, &bad, 0)) {
+				len = behind_merge(bb, &bad, 0);
+				added++;
+			} else {
+				len = min_t(sector_t,
+					    BB_OFFSET(p[0]) - s, sectors);
+				space_desired = 1;
+			}
+			hint = 0;
+			goto update_sectors;
+		}
+
+		/* no table space and give up */
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/* in case p[prev-1] can be merged with p[prev] */
+	if (can_combine_front(bb, prev, &bad)) {
+		front_combine(bb, prev);
+		bb->count--;
+		added++;
+		hint = prev - 1;
+		goto update_sectors;
+	}
+
+	if (overlap_front(bb, prev, &bad)) {
+		if (can_merge_front(bb, prev, &bad)) {
+			len = front_merge(bb, prev, &bad);
+			added++;
+			hint = prev - 1;
+		} else {
+			int extra = 0;
+
+			if (!can_front_overwrite(bb, prev, &bad, &extra)) {
+				len = min_t(sector_t,
+					    BB_END(p[prev]) - s, sectors);
+				hint = prev;
+				goto update_sectors;
+			}
+
+			len = front_overwrite(bb, prev, &bad, extra);
+			added++;
+			bb->count += extra;
+			hint = prev;
+
+			if (prev > 0 && can_combine_front(bb, prev, &bad)) {
+				front_combine(bb, prev);
+				bb->count--;
+				hint = prev - 1;
+			}
+		}
+		goto update_sectors;
+	}
+
+	if (can_merge_front(bb, prev, &bad)) {
+		len = front_merge(bb, prev, &bad);
+		added++;
+		hint = prev;
+		goto update_sectors;
+	}
+
+	/* if no space in table, still try to merge in the covered range */
+	if (badblocks_full(bb)) {
+		/* skip the cannot-merge range */
+		if (((prev + 1) < bb->count) &&
+		    overlap_behind(bb, &bad, prev + 1) &&
+		    ((s + sectors) >= BB_END(p[prev + 1]))) {
+			len = BB_END(p[prev + 1]) - s;
+			hint = prev + 1;
+			goto update_sectors;
+		}
+
+		/* no retry any more */
+		len = sectors;
+		space_desired = 1;
+		hint = -1;
+		goto update_sectors;
+	}
+
+	/* cannot merge and there is space in bad table */
+	if ((prev + 1) < bb->count &&
+	    overlap_behind(bb, &bad, prev + 1))
+		bad.len = min_t(sector_t,
+				bad.len, BB_OFFSET(p[prev + 1]) - bad.start);
+
+	len = insert_at(bb, prev + 1, &bad);
+	bb->count++;
+	added++;
+	hint = prev + 1;
+
+update_sectors:
+	s += len;
+	sectors -= len;
+
+	if (sectors > 0)
+		goto re_insert;
+
+	WARN_ON(sectors < 0);
+
+	/* Check whether the following already set range can be merged */
+	if ((prev + 1) < bb->count &&
+	    BB_END(p[prev]) == BB_OFFSET(p[prev + 1]) &&
+	    (BB_LEN(p[prev]) + BB_LEN(p[prev + 1])) <= BB_MAX_LEN &&
+	    BB_ACK(p[prev]) == BB_ACK(p[prev + 1])) {
+		p[prev] = BB_MAKE(BB_OFFSET(p[prev]),
+				  BB_LEN(p[prev]) + BB_LEN(p[prev + 1]),
+				  BB_ACK(p[prev]));
+
+		if ((prev + 2) < bb->count)
+			memmove(p + prev + 1, p + prev + 2,
+				(bb->count -  (prev + 2)) * 8);
+		bb->count--;
+	}
+
+	if (space_desired && !badblocks_full(bb)) {
+		s = bad.orig_start;
+		sectors = bad.orig_len;
+		space_desired = 0;
+		if (retried++ < 3)
+			goto re_insert;
+	}
+
+out:
+	if (added) {
+		set_changed(bb);
+
+		if (!acknowledged)
+			bb->unacked_exist = 1;
+		else
+			badblocks_update_acked(bb);
+	}
+
+	write_sequnlock_irqrestore(&bb->lock, flags);
+
+	if (!added)
+		rv = 1;
+
+	return rv;
+}
+
 /**
  * badblocks_check() - check a given range for bad sectors
  * @bb:		the badblocks structure that holds all badblock information
@@ -499,26 +1040,6 @@  int badblocks_check(struct badblocks *bb, sector_t s, int sectors,
 }
 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(badblocks_check);
 
-static void badblocks_update_acked(struct badblocks *bb)
-{
-	u64 *p = bb->page;
-	int i;
-	bool unacked = false;
-
-	if (!bb->unacked_exist)
-		return;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < bb->count ; i++) {
-		if (!BB_ACK(p[i])) {
-			unacked = true;
-			break;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if (!unacked)
-		bb->unacked_exist = 0;
-}
-
 /**
  * badblocks_set() - Add a range of bad blocks to the table.
  * @bb:		the badblocks structure that holds all badblock information