diff mbox series

[063/118] kfence, Documentation: add KFENCE documentation

Message ID 20210226011926.Bo8zOb6qU%akpm@linux-foundation.org (mailing list archive)
State New
Headers show
Series [001/118] mm: make pagecache tagged lookups return only head pages | expand

Commit Message

Andrew Morton Feb. 26, 2021, 1:19 a.m. UTC
From: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Subject: kfence, Documentation: add KFENCE documentation

Add KFENCE documentation in dev-tools/kfence.rst, and add to index.

[elver@google.com: add missing copyright header to documentation]
  Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20210118092159.145934-4-elver@google.com
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20201103175841.3495947-8-elver@google.com
Signed-off-by: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Marco Elver <elver@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Co-developed-by: Alexander Potapenko <glider@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Jann Horn <jannh@google.com>
Cc: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
Cc: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@kernel.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
Cc: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com>
Cc: Christopher Lameter <cl@linux.com>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@linux.intel.com>
Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com>
Cc: Eric Dumazet <edumazet@google.com>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Hillf Danton <hdanton@sina.com>
Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com>
Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>
Cc: Joern Engel <joern@purestorage.com>
Cc: Jonathan Corbet <corbet@lwn.net>
Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com>
Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@kernel.org>
Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org>
Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
Cc: SeongJae Park <sjpark@amazon.de>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
Cc: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz>
Cc: Will Deacon <will@kernel.org>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
---

 Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst  |    1 
 Documentation/dev-tools/kfence.rst |  298 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 lib/Kconfig.kfence                 |    2 
 3 files changed, 301 insertions(+)
diff mbox series

Patch

--- a/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst~kfence-documentation-add-kfence-documentation
+++ a/Documentation/dev-tools/index.rst
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@  whole; patches welcome!
    ubsan
    kmemleak
    kcsan
+   kfence
    gdb-kernel-debugging
    kgdb
    kselftest
--- /dev/null
+++ a/Documentation/dev-tools/kfence.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,298 @@ 
+.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+.. Copyright (C) 2020, Google LLC.
+
+Kernel Electric-Fence (KFENCE)
+==============================
+
+Kernel Electric-Fence (KFENCE) is a low-overhead sampling-based memory safety
+error detector. KFENCE detects heap out-of-bounds access, use-after-free, and
+invalid-free errors.
+
+KFENCE is designed to be enabled in production kernels, and has near zero
+performance overhead. Compared to KASAN, KFENCE trades performance for
+precision. The main motivation behind KFENCE's design, is that with enough
+total uptime KFENCE will detect bugs in code paths not typically exercised by
+non-production test workloads. One way to quickly achieve a large enough total
+uptime is when the tool is deployed across a large fleet of machines.
+
+Usage
+-----
+
+To enable KFENCE, configure the kernel with::
+
+    CONFIG_KFENCE=y
+
+To build a kernel with KFENCE support, but disabled by default (to enable, set
+``kfence.sample_interval`` to non-zero value), configure the kernel with::
+
+    CONFIG_KFENCE=y
+    CONFIG_KFENCE_SAMPLE_INTERVAL=0
+
+KFENCE provides several other configuration options to customize behaviour (see
+the respective help text in ``lib/Kconfig.kfence`` for more info).
+
+Tuning performance
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The most important parameter is KFENCE's sample interval, which can be set via
+the kernel boot parameter ``kfence.sample_interval`` in milliseconds. The
+sample interval determines the frequency with which heap allocations will be
+guarded by KFENCE. The default is configurable via the Kconfig option
+``CONFIG_KFENCE_SAMPLE_INTERVAL``. Setting ``kfence.sample_interval=0``
+disables KFENCE.
+
+The KFENCE memory pool is of fixed size, and if the pool is exhausted, no
+further KFENCE allocations occur. With ``CONFIG_KFENCE_NUM_OBJECTS`` (default
+255), the number of available guarded objects can be controlled. Each object
+requires 2 pages, one for the object itself and the other one used as a guard
+page; object pages are interleaved with guard pages, and every object page is
+therefore surrounded by two guard pages.
+
+The total memory dedicated to the KFENCE memory pool can be computed as::
+
+    ( #objects + 1 ) * 2 * PAGE_SIZE
+
+Using the default config, and assuming a page size of 4 KiB, results in
+dedicating 2 MiB to the KFENCE memory pool.
+
+Note: On architectures that support huge pages, KFENCE will ensure that the
+pool is using pages of size ``PAGE_SIZE``. This will result in additional page
+tables being allocated.
+
+Error reports
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+A typical out-of-bounds access looks like this::
+
+    ==================================================================
+    BUG: KFENCE: out-of-bounds in test_out_of_bounds_read+0xa3/0x22b
+
+    Out-of-bounds access at 0xffffffffb672efff (1B left of kfence-#17):
+     test_out_of_bounds_read+0xa3/0x22b
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    kfence-#17 [0xffffffffb672f000-0xffffffffb672f01f, size=32, cache=kmalloc-32] allocated by task 507:
+     test_alloc+0xf3/0x25b
+     test_out_of_bounds_read+0x98/0x22b
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    CPU: 4 PID: 107 Comm: kunit_try_catch Not tainted 5.8.0-rc6+ #7
+    Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.13.0-1 04/01/2014
+    ==================================================================
+
+The header of the report provides a short summary of the function involved in
+the access. It is followed by more detailed information about the access and
+its origin. Note that, real kernel addresses are only shown for
+``CONFIG_DEBUG_KERNEL=y`` builds.
+
+Use-after-free accesses are reported as::
+
+    ==================================================================
+    BUG: KFENCE: use-after-free in test_use_after_free_read+0xb3/0x143
+
+    Use-after-free access at 0xffffffffb673dfe0 (in kfence-#24):
+     test_use_after_free_read+0xb3/0x143
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    kfence-#24 [0xffffffffb673dfe0-0xffffffffb673dfff, size=32, cache=kmalloc-32] allocated by task 507:
+     test_alloc+0xf3/0x25b
+     test_use_after_free_read+0x76/0x143
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    freed by task 507:
+     test_use_after_free_read+0xa8/0x143
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    CPU: 4 PID: 109 Comm: kunit_try_catch Tainted: G        W         5.8.0-rc6+ #7
+    Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.13.0-1 04/01/2014
+    ==================================================================
+
+KFENCE also reports on invalid frees, such as double-frees::
+
+    ==================================================================
+    BUG: KFENCE: invalid free in test_double_free+0xdc/0x171
+
+    Invalid free of 0xffffffffb6741000:
+     test_double_free+0xdc/0x171
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    kfence-#26 [0xffffffffb6741000-0xffffffffb674101f, size=32, cache=kmalloc-32] allocated by task 507:
+     test_alloc+0xf3/0x25b
+     test_double_free+0x76/0x171
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    freed by task 507:
+     test_double_free+0xa8/0x171
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    CPU: 4 PID: 111 Comm: kunit_try_catch Tainted: G        W         5.8.0-rc6+ #7
+    Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.13.0-1 04/01/2014
+    ==================================================================
+
+KFENCE also uses pattern-based redzones on the other side of an object's guard
+page, to detect out-of-bounds writes on the unprotected side of the object.
+These are reported on frees::
+
+    ==================================================================
+    BUG: KFENCE: memory corruption in test_kmalloc_aligned_oob_write+0xef/0x184
+
+    Corrupted memory at 0xffffffffb6797ff9 [ 0xac . . . . . . ] (in kfence-#69):
+     test_kmalloc_aligned_oob_write+0xef/0x184
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    kfence-#69 [0xffffffffb6797fb0-0xffffffffb6797ff8, size=73, cache=kmalloc-96] allocated by task 507:
+     test_alloc+0xf3/0x25b
+     test_kmalloc_aligned_oob_write+0x57/0x184
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    CPU: 4 PID: 120 Comm: kunit_try_catch Tainted: G        W         5.8.0-rc6+ #7
+    Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.13.0-1 04/01/2014
+    ==================================================================
+
+For such errors, the address where the corruption occurred as well as the
+invalidly written bytes (offset from the address) are shown; in this
+representation, '.' denote untouched bytes. In the example above ``0xac`` is
+the value written to the invalid address at offset 0, and the remaining '.'
+denote that no following bytes have been touched. Note that, real values are
+only shown for ``CONFIG_DEBUG_KERNEL=y`` builds; to avoid information
+disclosure for non-debug builds, '!' is used instead to denote invalidly
+written bytes.
+
+And finally, KFENCE may also report on invalid accesses to any protected page
+where it was not possible to determine an associated object, e.g. if adjacent
+object pages had not yet been allocated::
+
+    ==================================================================
+    BUG: KFENCE: invalid access in test_invalid_access+0x26/0xe0
+
+    Invalid access at 0xffffffffb670b00a:
+     test_invalid_access+0x26/0xe0
+     kunit_try_run_case+0x51/0x85
+     kunit_generic_run_threadfn_adapter+0x16/0x30
+     kthread+0x137/0x160
+     ret_from_fork+0x22/0x30
+
+    CPU: 4 PID: 124 Comm: kunit_try_catch Tainted: G        W         5.8.0-rc6+ #7
+    Hardware name: QEMU Standard PC (i440FX + PIIX, 1996), BIOS 1.13.0-1 04/01/2014
+    ==================================================================
+
+DebugFS interface
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Some debugging information is exposed via debugfs:
+
+* The file ``/sys/kernel/debug/kfence/stats`` provides runtime statistics.
+
+* The file ``/sys/kernel/debug/kfence/objects`` provides a list of objects
+  allocated via KFENCE, including those already freed but protected.
+
+Implementation Details
+----------------------
+
+Guarded allocations are set up based on the sample interval. After expiration
+of the sample interval, the next allocation through the main allocator (SLAB or
+SLUB) returns a guarded allocation from the KFENCE object pool (allocation
+sizes up to PAGE_SIZE are supported). At this point, the timer is reset, and
+the next allocation is set up after the expiration of the interval. To "gate" a
+KFENCE allocation through the main allocator's fast-path without overhead,
+KFENCE relies on static branches via the static keys infrastructure. The static
+branch is toggled to redirect the allocation to KFENCE.
+
+KFENCE objects each reside on a dedicated page, at either the left or right
+page boundaries selected at random. The pages to the left and right of the
+object page are "guard pages", whose attributes are changed to a protected
+state, and cause page faults on any attempted access. Such page faults are then
+intercepted by KFENCE, which handles the fault gracefully by reporting an
+out-of-bounds access, and marking the page as accessible so that the faulting
+code can (wrongly) continue executing (set ``panic_on_warn`` to panic instead).
+
+To detect out-of-bounds writes to memory within the object's page itself,
+KFENCE also uses pattern-based redzones. For each object page, a redzone is set
+up for all non-object memory. For typical alignments, the redzone is only
+required on the unguarded side of an object. Because KFENCE must honor the
+cache's requested alignment, special alignments may result in unprotected gaps
+on either side of an object, all of which are redzoned.
+
+The following figure illustrates the page layout::
+
+    ---+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---
+       | xxxxxxxxx | O :       | xxxxxxxxx |       : O | xxxxxxxxx |
+       | xxxxxxxxx | B :       | xxxxxxxxx |       : B | xxxxxxxxx |
+       | x GUARD x | J : RED-  | x GUARD x | RED-  : J | x GUARD x |
+       | xxxxxxxxx | E :  ZONE | xxxxxxxxx |  ZONE : E | xxxxxxxxx |
+       | xxxxxxxxx | C :       | xxxxxxxxx |       : C | xxxxxxxxx |
+       | xxxxxxxxx | T :       | xxxxxxxxx |       : T | xxxxxxxxx |
+    ---+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---
+
+Upon deallocation of a KFENCE object, the object's page is again protected and
+the object is marked as freed. Any further access to the object causes a fault
+and KFENCE reports a use-after-free access. Freed objects are inserted at the
+tail of KFENCE's freelist, so that the least recently freed objects are reused
+first, and the chances of detecting use-after-frees of recently freed objects
+is increased.
+
+Interface
+---------
+
+The following describes the functions which are used by allocators as well as
+page handling code to set up and deal with KFENCE allocations.
+
+.. kernel-doc:: include/linux/kfence.h
+   :functions: is_kfence_address
+               kfence_shutdown_cache
+               kfence_alloc kfence_free __kfence_free
+               kfence_ksize kfence_object_start
+               kfence_handle_page_fault
+
+Related Tools
+-------------
+
+In userspace, a similar approach is taken by `GWP-ASan
+<http://llvm.org/docs/GwpAsan.html>`_. GWP-ASan also relies on guard pages and
+a sampling strategy to detect memory unsafety bugs at scale. KFENCE's design is
+directly influenced by GWP-ASan, and can be seen as its kernel sibling. Another
+similar but non-sampling approach, that also inspired the name "KFENCE", can be
+found in the userspace `Electric Fence Malloc Debugger
+<https://linux.die.net/man/3/efence>`_.
+
+In the kernel, several tools exist to debug memory access errors, and in
+particular KASAN can detect all bug classes that KFENCE can detect. While KASAN
+is more precise, relying on compiler instrumentation, this comes at a
+performance cost.
+
+It is worth highlighting that KASAN and KFENCE are complementary, with
+different target environments. For instance, KASAN is the better debugging-aid,
+where test cases or reproducers exists: due to the lower chance to detect the
+error, it would require more effort using KFENCE to debug. Deployments at scale
+that cannot afford to enable KASAN, however, would benefit from using KFENCE to
+discover bugs due to code paths not exercised by test cases or fuzzers.
--- a/lib/Kconfig.kfence~kfence-documentation-add-kfence-documentation
+++ a/lib/Kconfig.kfence
@@ -13,6 +13,8 @@  menuconfig KFENCE
 	  to have negligible cost to permit enabling it in production
 	  environments.
 
+	  See <file:Documentation/dev-tools/kfence.rst> for more details.
+
 	  Note that, KFENCE is not a substitute for explicit testing with tools
 	  such as KASAN. KFENCE can detect a subset of bugs that KASAN can
 	  detect, albeit at very different performance profiles. If you can